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IGBP SCIENCE IN PAKISTAN By Dr. Amir Muhammed Chairman, Pakistan National IGBP Committee NATIONAL SETTING PAKISTAN GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE Population: 149 million Growth Rate: 2.06\% Literacy rate: 51\% Male 53\% Female 29\% GDP (per capita): $492

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igbp science in pakistan

IGBP SCIENCE IN PAKISTAN

By

Dr. Amir Muhammed

Chairman,

Pakistan National IGBP Committee

slide3
PAKISTAN

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

socio economic profile
SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE
  • Population: 149 million

Growth Rate: 2.06%

  • Literacy rate: 51%

Male 53%

Female 29%

  • GDP (per capita): $492
  • Population below poverty line:32%

Urban 22%

Rural 39%

  • Health Expenditure 0.7% of GDP
  • Rural population access to;

Safe drinking water: 48%

Sanitation: 23%

climate
CLIMATE

Mostly Arid and Semi arid; temperate in the North west

  • Hot dry summers,
  • Temperatures upto 530c (1270 F)
  • Rainfall
  • Annual average (weighted): 278 mm
      • South: 80 - 200 mm
      • North: 250 – 1600 mm
  • Monsoon Share: 49%
agriculture
AGRICULTURE
  • Largest sector of Economy (24% of GDP)
  • 68% population rural; directly or indirectly depends on agriculture
  • Industries almost entirely agro based
  • >80% exports agro based
  • Predominantly depends on irrigation
recent trends in climate change
RECENT TRENDS IN CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Drought in Pakistan for last three years
  • Forecast for continued dry weather in arid areas of the sub-continent
  • Extremes getting severe-intense short duration rains, prolonged dry spells
impact on rainfall warming
IMPACT ON RAINFALL & WARMING

Historical comparison (1930-60 & 1960-90)

  • Rise in mean temp. of 0.5-1.00C in arid coastal areas, arid mountains and hyper arid plains
  • 10-15% decrease in rainfall in above regions
  • 15-35% increase in rainfall in monsoon zone
  • 0.5 to 0.75% Increase in solar radiation in Balochistan and Southern Pakistan
  • 1-2% decrease in cloud cover in central Pakistan with increase in sunshine hours
impact on water resources and economy
IMPACT ON WATER RESOURCES AND ECONOMY
  • Less snowfall, slow deposits & glacierization
  • Reduced river flows
  • Reduction in storage of water in dams
  • Less rainfall in arid areas, prolonged droughts
slide16
Air Pollution
  • Number of vehicles jumped from less than one million to about 4 million during last 20 years
  • Av. Suspended particulate matter in major cities 6 times higher than WHO standard

Water Pollution

  • Existing water resources under threat due to untreated discharge of municipal and industrial wastes. (Pak-EPA study: Biological Oxygen Demand of river Ravi (Lahore)was 300 mg/litre (9 mg/l is acceptable)
  • Increasing use of agro-chemicals polluting river and underground water
  • Drinking water unfit for human consumption in most cities
slide17
Industrial Pollution
  • Imports 525 types of chemicals for processing industries, in addition to locally produced
  • Processing generates wastes & poses risk to public health, land, water and marine resources
  • Kasur Tanneries discharging effluent with chrome concn. of > 200 mg/litre (standard 1 mg/l) and COD of >7000/l ( limit 150 mg/l)
slide18
Marine Pollution
  • Karachi generates 280 mn gallons of domestic and industrial waste daily. 80% untreated waste from 6000 industrial units discharged into sea
  • 8,000T garbage generated daily in Karachi, dumped randomly at various locations. Some finds its way into sea
  • Karachi harbour area, including marine channel, is one of the most oil-polluted area along the coast of Pakistan
  • Serious threat to marine environment, fisheries and mangrove resources, affecting poor coastal population.

Loss of Biodiversity

slide20
R&D EXPENDITURE

Source: PCST Publications, “S&T Potential 1990” & “S&T Indicators of Pakistan, 1999”.

UNESCO Year Book 1999

slide21
R&D MANPOWER

Source: UNESCO Year Book 1999

science learned bodies
SCIENCE LEARNED BODIES
  • Pakistan Academy of Sciences
  • Pakistan Association for Advancement of Science
  • Scientific Society of Pakistan
slide23
IGBP COMMITTEE OF PAKISTAN
  • Dr. Amir Muhammed: Agriculture
  • Dr. M.D. Shami Chemical Technology
  • Prof. Iftikar Malik Medical (Pathology)
  • Mr. Tajammal H. Hashmi Engineering
  • Dr. Iqbal Hussain Quershi Chemistry
  • Prof. Dr. M.Suhail Zubairy Electronics
  • Prof. Dr. M.Qasim Jan Geology
  • Dr. Qamaruzzaman Meteorology
institutions relevant to gc research
INSTITUTIONS RELEVANT TO GC RESEARCH
  • Pakistan Council for Scientific & Industrial Research
  • Pakistan Agriculture Research Council
  • Pak. Council for Res. in Water Resources
  • Water and Power Development Authority
  • National Institute of Oceanography
  • Pakistan Meteorological Department
  • Global Change Impact Studies Centre
gc science projects
GC SCIENCE PROJECTS
  • Water Resources in South Asia – An assessment of Climate Change associated vulnerabilities and coping mechanisms” APN 2003-4(Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal,USA)
  • Global Change impact assessment for Himalayan Mountain Region for Environmental Management and Sustainable Development” APN #2003-3(Nepal, India, Pakistan)
  • Inventory of Glaciers and Glacial Lakes and the identification of Potential Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) affected by Global Warming in the Mountains APN #2003-5(Nepal, Pakistan, India, China, Japan, Mongolia, Republic of Korea)
  • An assessment of nutrient, sediment and carbon fluxes to the coastal zone in South Asia and their relationship to human activities-(APN #2001-20) : (Srilanka, Pakistan, India, Nepal, USA, Australia)
  • Management Responses to Seasonal Climate Forecasts in Mixed Cropping Systems of South Asia's Semi-Arid Tropics (CLIMAG) APN #2000-17(Australia, India, Pakistan, USA)
  • South Asian Regional Experiment to Characterize and Evaluate Physiological Response of Rice Varieties to CO2 Enrichment. APN #2000-08(India, Bangladesh,, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka)
  • APN Networking & Capacity Building Workshop#2000-NC02(Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka)
proposal for strengthening igbp science in pakistan
PROPOSAL FOR STRENGTHENING IGBP SCIENCE IN PAKISTAN
  • Sensitize policy makers to importance of GC studies
  • Establish focal point for GC aspects in M/0 Environment
  • Regional and national capacity building workshops
  • Establish education programs in environmental science
  • Incorporate GC concerns in curricula
  • Graduate course on GC science in region (AIT Bangkok?)
  • Enhance capacity for science-based GC studies
  • Support collab. research with developed country scientists
  • Encourage visiting scientist program for young scientists
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