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Communities An association of interacting populations in the same place at the same time. -- have characteristic physiognomy. Ecosystem A community plus its abiotic environment -- includes energy flow, biogeochemical cycling. Communities as fixed species assemblages.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Communities

An association of interacting populations

in the same place at the same time

-- have characteristic physiognomy

Ecosystem

A community plus its abiotic environment

-- includes energy flow, biogeochemical

cycling

slide2

Communities as fixed species assemblages

-- C. H. Merriam, 1890s Arizona

-- all interacting species, co-dependent

-- superorganism

-- Life Zone concept

slide4

Organismic or fixed concept

Continuum concept

Fig. 22.1 (EFB)

slide5

Palynology: the study of pollen (fossil and recent)

-- can identify grains to species by morphology

-- preserve well in sediment cores from lakes, bogs

-- represent past plant communities

-- can radiocarbon date organic remains in

cores to determine age of communities

Margaret Davis: studied fossil pollen from lake cores

in the eastern U.S.

slide8

Community Structure

Patterns visible in a community including:

-- physiognomy

-- dominant species

-- number of trophic levels

-- number and abundance of species

species richness vs. species diversity

slide10

Ecotones: intermixing of two communities where

one transitions into another

-- causes an ‘edge effect’ of greater species

richness in the ecotone

-- edges can be inherent or induced

-- edges once thought to be good for wildlife

management, but can be detrimental

-- e.g., increased edge, more invasive species

such as cowbirds entering forests

slide11

Edge effects on forests

  • Changes in physical environment
  • e.g., temperature, humidity, light penetration
  • and wind

2. Direct biological changes

e.g., dead trees and tree fall, reduced leaf

fall, fewer forest birds

3. Higher order biological changes

e.g., increase in some insect populations

(butterflies and high light), increase in

insectivores, more disturbances to interior

slide13

Plant productivity and the number of bird species

in temperate zone habitats

Primary productivity No. of breeding

Habitat (g/m2/yr) bird species

Marsh 2000 6

Grassland 500 6

Shrubland 600 14

Desert 70 14

Coniferous forest 800 17

Upland deciduous forest 1000 21

Floodplain deciduous forest 2000 24