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School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS): Coaching for Effective Implementation Rob Horner University of Oregon pbis.org uoecs.org
Goals • Current status of SWPBIS nationally • SWPBIS in Kentucky • Coaching • Who • When • How • Why • Lessons Learned
Purpose • The purpose of SWPBIS is to make schools more effective learning environments for all students.
A Concern We are narrowing the vision of education in the United States.
School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) The social culture of a school matters. A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families. Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainability Multiple tiers of intensity
What is School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support? • School-wide PBIS is: • A systems framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to be an effective learning environment (e.g. academic and behavior) for all students. • Evidence-based features of SWPBIS • Prevention • Define and teach positive social expectations • Acknowledge positive behavior • Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior • Classroom linkage of behavioral and academic supports • On-going collection and use of data for decision-making • Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports. • Implementation of the systemsthat support effective practices • SWPBIS is a multi-tiered Framework • NOT a specific Curriculum
Establishing a Social Culture Common Language MEMBERSHIP Common Experience Common Vision/Values
Sobering Observation Reduction in Incidence of Mental Retardation and Learning Disabilities The Oregon Department of Education has released graduation rates for all public high schools. Nearly one-third of all high school students don't receive a diploma after four years of study. by Betsy Hammond, The Oregonian Monday June 29, 2009, "All organizations [and systems] are designed, intentionally or unwittingly, to achieve precisely the results they get."R. Spencer Darling Business Expert Rise in Incidence of Autism © Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Robert Horner, George Sugai, 2008
Systems Change • Effective practices produce effective outcomes only within effective systems • We have invested in defining effective practices but not in defining the systems needed for these practices to produce effective outcomes.
The challenge of too many initiatives Wraparound Early Intervention Literacy Equity Positive Behavior Support Family Support Math Response to Intervention
Alignment for Systems change Response to Intervention/Prevention Primary Prevention Universal Screening Multi-tiered Support Early Intervention Progress Monitoring Systems to support practices Early Intervention Literacy Wraparound ALIGNMENT Math Family Support Behavior Support Student Outcomes © Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Robert Horner, George Sugai, 2008
Supporting Social Competence, Academic Achievement and Safety School-wide PBIS OUTCOMES Supporting Student Behavior Supporting Decision Making PRACTICES DATA SYSTEMS Supporting Staff Behavior
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings K ~80% of Students 27
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students 27
School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~15% ~80% of Students
ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS • TERTIARY PREVENTION • Function-based support • Wraparound • Person-centered planning • TERTIARY PREVENTION ~5% ~15% • SECONDARY PREVENTION • Check in/out • Targeted social skills instruction • Peer-based supports • Social skills club • SECONDARY PREVENTION • PRIMARY PREVENTION • Teach SW expectations • Proactive SW discipline • Positive reinforcement • Effective instruction • Parent engagement • School-wide Bully Prevention • PRIMARY PREVENTION ~80% of Students
Math Remember that the multiple tiers of support refer to our SUPPORT not Students. Avoid creating a new disability labeling system. Behavior Health Reading
Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS • Never stop doing what already works • Always look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effect • Avoid defining a large number of goals • Do a small number of things well • Define what you will do with operational precision • Do not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possible.
Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS • Collect and use data for decision-making • Fidelity data: Are we doing what we said we would do? • Impact Data: Are we benefiting students? • Adapt any initiative to make it “fit” your school community, culture, context. • Families • Students • Faculty • Fiscal-political structure • Establish policy clarity before investing in implementation
Michigan State Board of Education Positive Behavior Support Policy The vision of the State Board of Education is to create learning environments that prepare students to be successful citizens in the 21st century. The educational community must provide a system that will support students’ efforts to manage their own behavior and assure academic achievement. An effective behavior support system is a proactive, positive, skill-building approach for the teaching and learning of successful student behavior. Positive behavior support systems ensure effective strategies that promote pro-social behavior and respectful learning environments. Research-based positive behavior support systems are appropriate for all students, regardless of age. The principles of Universal Education reflect the beliefs that each person deserves and needs a positive, concerned, accepting educational community that values diversity and provides a comprehensive system of individual supports from birth to adulthood. A positive behavior support policy incorporates the demonstration and teaching of positive, proactive social behaviors throughout the school environment. A positive behavior support system is a data-based effort that concentrates on adjusting the system that supports the student. Such a system is implemented by collaborative, school-based teams using person-centered planning. School-wide expectations for behavior are clearly stated, widely promoted, and frequently referenced. Both individual and school-wide learning and behavior problems are assessed comprehensively. Functional assessment of learning and behavior challenges is linked to an intervention that focuses on skill building. The effectiveness of the selected intervention is evaluated and reviewed, leading to data-based revisions. Positive interventions that support adaptive and pro-social behavior and build on the strengths of the student lead to an improved learning environment. Students are offered a continuum of methods that help them learn and maintain appropriate behavior and discourage violation of codes of student conduct. In keeping with this vision, it is the policy of the State Board of Education that each school district in Michigan implement a system of school-wide positive behavior support strategies. Adopted September 12, 2006 …it is the policy of the State Board of Education that each school district in Michigan implement a system of school-wide positive behavior support strategies.
Count of School Implementing SWPBIS by State August, 2011 12 States > 500 Schools Illinois Kentucky
Proportion of School Implementing SWPBIS by State August, 2011 Kentucky
Experimental Research on SWPBIS • Reducedproblem behavior • Improvements in academic achievement • Enhanced perception of organizational health & safety • Improved school climate • Reductions in teacher’s reports of bullying behavior • Improved social emotional functioning • Improved teacher effectiveness Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14. Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine.2012;166(2):149-156
Academic-Behavior Connection • Achieving Academic Success involves creating a positive school climate. • The importance of a positive school climate is greater for those students at risk for academic failure than for those not at risk. • Building a positive school climate without delivering high quality instruction will be insufficient to achieve student academic outcomes. Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 3-16. Algozzine, R., Putnam, R., & Horner, R. (2012). Support for teaching students with learning disabilities academic skills and social behaviors within a response-to-intervention model: Why it doesn’t matter what comes first. Insights on Learning Disabilities, 9(1), 7-36. Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 15-25. McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, 146-154. McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, 131-147. Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62. Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100-109.
Using PBIS to AchieveQuality, Equity and Efficiency • QUALITY: Using what works; Linking Academic and Behavior Supports • North Carolina (valued outcomes) • Michigan (behavior and literacy supports) • Commitment to Fidelity Measures • Building functional logic/ theory/ practice (Sanford) • EQUITY: Making schools work for all • Scott Ross • Russ Skiba • Vincent, Cartledge, May & Tobin • Bully prevention • EFFICIENCY: Working Smarter: Building implementation science into large scale adoption. • Using teacher and student time better. • Dean Fixsen/ Oregon Dept of Education
Coaching within SWPBIS • A Context for Coaching • Coaching Defined (What is it?) • The Outcomes of Coaching (Why?) • Who/When/ How
Reliable Student Benefits Implementation Drivers Performance Assessment (fidelity) Systems Intervention Coaching Facilitative Administration OrganizationDrivers CompetencyDrivers Training Effective PBIS Implementation DecisionSupport DataSystem Selection Leadership Drivers Technical Adaptive © Fixsen & Blase, 2008
Coaching Defined • Coaching is the active and iterative delivery of: • (a) prompts that increase successful behavior, and • (b) corrections that decrease unsuccessful behavior. • (c) problem solving to adapt core concepts and practices to the local context. • Coaching is done by someone with credibility and experience with the target skill(s) • Knowledge of SWPBIS, Knowledge of Behavioral Theory • Coaching is done on-site, in real time • Coaching is done after initial training • Coaching is NOT training • Coaching is done repeatedly (e.g. monthly) • Coaching intensity is adjusted to need
Outcomes of Coaching • School team improves Precision and Fluency with SWPBIS skills developed during training • PBIS procedures are Adapted to fit local contexts and challenges • Increased fidelity of overall SWPBIS implementation • Rapid redirection from miss-applications • Team improves Problem Solving • Especially use of data for problem solving • Improved Sustainability • Most often due to ability to increase coaching intensity at critical points in time.
10% 5% 0% 30% 20% 0% 60% 60% 5% 95% 95% 95% Joyce & Showers, 2002
Example of the Impact of Coaching on Student Outcomes:Average Major Discipline Referrals per Day per Month Coach goes on leave
Example of the Impact of Coaching on Student Outcomes:Average Major Discipline Referrals per Day per Month Coach returns from leave Coach goes on leave
Coaching vs. Training • Coaching involves active collaboration and participation, but not group instruction. • Small group • Build from local competence • Sustainable
What Coaches Do • Work with team during initial SWPBIS training • Meet with new teams monthly on-site until they meet Tier I criterion • Telephone/email contact as needed (with on-going teams) • Pre-correct • Self-assessment (EBS Survey, Team Checklist, BoQ, MATT) • Action planning • Activity implementation • On-going evaluation • School self-evaluation efforts • State-wide Initiative evaluation efforts (SET) • Guide State-wide initiative • Feedback to Taskforce/ Leadership Team
Commitment of Coaches • Team Support • First Year (1-5 teams) (participate in training and planning) • Second Year (Maintain initial teams, start 3-5 new teams) • Future Years (10-15 teams total) • FTE commitment • 20-50% • Roles/Background • Behavior Specialists, Special Education Teachers • Consultants, Administrators • School Psychologists, Counselors, Social Workers
Guiding Principles for Effective Coaching • Build local capacity • Become unnecessary…but remain available • Maximize current competence (action planning) • Never change things that are working • Always make the smallest change that will have the biggest impact • Focus on valued outcomes • Tie all efforts to the benefits for children • Emphasize Accountability • Measure and report; measure and report; measure and report. • Build credibility through: • (a) consistency, (b) competence with behavioral principles/practices, (c) relationships, (d) time investment. • Pre-correct for success
Sustainability/ Scaling • Acknowledge that there are Stages of Implementation
Sages of Implementation School Level Implementation Takes Time: 2 – 4 Years EXPLORATION INSTALLATION INITIAL IMPLEMENTATION FULL IMPLEMENTATION How long at a district level? How long at a state level? How long at a national level? Fixsen & Blase 2012
Summary • SWPBIS is effective, possible and scalable • Coaching is a core function within SWPBIS implementation • Coaching makes a difference • Coaching involves a complex set of skills • Each of us should be able to identify the next set of coaching skills we are developing. • Coaching affects: • Initial implementation • Sustained implementation • Scaling of SWPBIS implementation