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Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans. Presented by: Dr. Caren Baruch Feldman Hewlett Woodmere School District May 8, 2009 firstname.lastname@example.org. The Good News…. Functional Behavioral Assessment when done right helps students.
Presented by: Dr. Caren Baruch Feldman
Hewlett Woodmere School District
May 8, 2009
Behavior occurs in a context. One needs to consider the environment as well as the child.
Behaviors continue because they are reinforced. The misbehavior on some level works for the child. Our challenge is to identify the function that behavior serves and attempt to identify a replacement behavior that is more acceptable and will serve the same purpose for the student. One needs to make the problem behavior irrelevant, inefficient, and ineffective.
Not enough just to punish. We need to “teach” replacement behaviors and allow for practice of those new skills. Rome was not built in a day.
We should be proactive in addressing challenging behaviors and try to prevent problems before they occur.
“An ounce of prevention is with a pound of cure.”
The FBA is a method for gathering information that identifies the function of problembehavior and the events that predict its occurrence.
Function = the purpose the behavior serves
Antecedents = Conditions that Precede the Occurrence of the Behavior
Consequences=Events that Follow the
A complete FBA includes:
Definition of the problem behavior.
Antecedent conditions that exist both when the behavior occurs and doesn’t occur.
The consequences that maintain the behavior.
Definition of the replacement behavior.
A statement of behavioral function.
The BIP refers to the development of behavior change strategies that are based on the data gathered during the FBA and that are directly linked to the function of the behavior.
The BIP should:
Interventions that take into consideration function have proven to be more effective as compared to interventions that simply increase reinforcement for appropriate behaviors and penalties for problem behaviors.
Why is this true?
Functions for the MisbehaviorMatching Intervention_______________
Avoidance/escape from task Alter task and/or make escape demands contingent on appropriate behavior. For example, teach to request assistance or a break.
Attention from adults Ignore and/or make attention contingent
or peers on alternative behavior. For example, planned ignoring,
time out, and teach appropriate attention seeking. Increase schedule for appropriate behaviors.
Obtain tangible or preferred Make tangible or preferred activities contingent on
activities appropriate behavior. For example, teach appropriate request behaviors and schedule time with reinforcers.
Obtain internal stimulation Provide access to a replacement activity.
Set targets of self control and reward.
* Behavior can have multiple functions
Target Behavior = Behavior Selected for Intervention
Replacement Behavior = Behavior you want the student to perform
Behavior needs to be observable, measurable, and repeatable.
Pass the stranger test. Could a complete stranger read the definition and know exactly what to look for in an observation?
Distinguish between behaviors and outcomes of behavior
The so- what test? - Is it important to change this behavior?
The REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR
1) Must be stated in the positive (in terms of what you want the student to do and no dead person behaviors)
2) Be something that the student can learn
3) Be supported by the environment
A-B-C Observation FormStudent:_______________TargetBehavior:________Date:_________________ Time:_________________Location: _____________Observer:______________
Narrative recording- taking notes and writing down what occurs.
Frequency or Event Recording- Counting how many times a specific behavior occurs during a given period. Good for discrete behaviors rather than continuous.
Interval recording- Divide the observation time into equal intervals and the record whether or not the behavior occurred.
Duration recording- determining how long a particular behavior lasts.
Latency recording- how much time between behaviors.
Scatter plot - record the occurrence of the behavior on a time grid. The aim is to record when and where a behavior occurs, chart the information and look for patterns.
ABC- narrative account of the antecedents, behavior, and events that follow the behavior, consequences.
Developed based on the FBA
Method #1: Teach the Replacement Behavior
Examples include communication, social skills, prerequisite academic skills, and self management.
Method #2: Improve the Antecedents or Environment
Examples include clear and specific incentives, rules, and choices; modifying routines, physical arrangements, and organization; increasing time spent on instruction, and using effective teaching strategies; cueing and foreshadowing change.
Method # 3: Adjusting the Contingencies or Consequences
Eliminate the consequences that formerly maintained the target behavior and provide reinforcements for the replacement behavior.
RB needs to be more efficient than the PB
Reinforce new communication skills
Use extinction for PB
Allow escape by asking
Depends on the area that is weak (e.g., sharing, anger management, dealing with teasing). Teach the skill.
Prerequisite Academic Skills
Can occur b/c student not know how to execute the academic task.
Includes self recording (counting and recording your own behavior), self evaluation (making a judgment whether one has earned the reinforcement). Includes a visual and auditory clue for performing the replacement behavior.
“We’re encouraging people to become involved in their own rescue.”
Eliminate the antecedent event.
Modify the task so that it includes the student’s interest.
Change the task difficulty.
Make the task more meaningful.
Increase the opportunities for choice.
Good classroom management.
Transitions should be smooth, with little wait time, and with warning.
Prompting and cueing.
Arrange the room for success (e.g., distracting classroom arrangements, noisy peer activity, changes in routine, and seating assignments).
1. Eliminate the consequences that formerly maintained the target behavior and provide reinforcements for the replacement behavior.
2. Extinction - Withhold the consequence when the target behavior occurs.
3. Reinforcement- Provide the consequence that previously reinforced the target behavior, but only for the replacement behavior. Need to be done immediately.
4. Build a positive climate- provide 4 positives for every 1 correction.
5. Redirection towards alternative responses. To create opportunities to give the student positive feedback for appropriate behavior.
6. Increases the effectiveness of the replacement behavior by minimizing reinforcement for PB and increasing reinforcement for TB.
Ask yourself the following questions.
1. Can the student perform the replacement behavior?
a) If the answer is “NO,” use Method # 1: Teach the replacement behavior, and
b) Ask the next question.
2. Do the antecedents conditions represent “effective educational practice”?
a) If the answer is “No,” use Method # 2: Improve the Environment.
b) If the answer to both questions is “Yes,” use Method #3 : Adjust the contingencies.
c) If the answer to both questions is “No”, use Method #1: and Method #2.