Improving Outcomes for ALL Students Through Response to Intervention : Effective Interventions Gary L. Cates, Ph.D. Illinois State University
Research Supported Reading Interventions Across a Three Tier Model of Support
5 Big Areas of Reading Based on 30 Years of Research • Phonemic Awareness (PA): ability to hear and manipulate individual sounds in oral language • Phonics (P): understanding and connecting letters of written language with sounds of oral language • Fluency (F): reading text accurately and quickly • Vocabulary (V): oral or reading language needed for effective communication • Comprehension ( C ): purposeful and active strategies for understanding written language
Time Curricular Breadth Example of 3-Tier Level Interventions Reading Tier I Tier 3 Tier 2 90 120 180 Curricular Focus 5 areas Less than 5 2 or less Core + Supplemental + Intensive Core + Supplemental Core Frequency of Progress Monitoring 3X Yearly or greater Monthly or greater Weekly
Things to keep in mind about interventions… • Intensive and focused – it should give struggling readers a chance to practice a limited set of skills with immediate corrective feedback. • Intervention is in addition to core reading program! • Intervention starts at the lowest skill that is deficient then moves up the continuum as children reach automaticity and mastery • Example: Focus on student’s proficiency with recognizing and expressing initial sounds before teaching segmentation of all sounds in words
UNIVERSAL TIER 1: Benchmark/Core Programs (Elem): 1. Rigby Literacy (Harcourt Rigby Education, 2000) 2. Trophies (Harcourt School Publishers, 2003)* 3. The Nation’s Choice (Houghton Mifflin, 2003) 4. Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Reading (2003) 5. Open Court (SRA/McGraw-Hill, 2002)* 6. Reading Mastery Plus (SRA/ McGraw-Hill, 2002) 7. Scott Foresman Reading (2004) 8. Success For All (1998-2003) Wright Group Literacy (2002) Read Well* Reviewed by: Oregon Reading First and FCRR Comprehensive: Addressed all 5 areas and included at least grades K-3 ~5% ~15% ~80% of Students
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS): A Multiple Strategy Intervention <http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals/>
PALS Research • Based on Juniper Gardens ClassWide Peer Tutoring Model • Has over 10 years of experimental research • Used in Title 1 and Non-Title 1 Schools • Implemented in urban and suburban schools • Includes high, average and low achievers as well as students with disabilities • Available in reading and math
Critical Features of PALS • Supplemental reading practice several times per week (30-45 minutes each session, depending on grade level and activities) • Structured activities • Reciprocal roles (Coaches and Readers) • Individualized support-corrective feedback • More time on task with active engagement • Inclusion of all students with built-in opportunities for success • Facilitation of positive peer interactions • Opportunities to monitor student progress • Practical and Effective Strategies
General Procedures for PALS • PALS is conducted three times each week (about 30-45 min. per session) but four times is recommended in Title 1 schools or very low achieving schools • Students are rank ordered , split in half, and strong readers in top half are paired with weaker readers in bottom half • Each pair is assigned to one of two teams • Teams and pairs remain together for 3-4 week, and partners work to earn points for their time each week • Within pairs, the stronger reader read first to provide a model, but coach and reader roles are switched during each activity • Partners read text at the level of the weaker reader. • Teachers monitor students, provide help, and award bonus points for good tutoring behaviors.
PALS Activities for Kindergarten and First-Grade Students-Includes Teacher-Led Practice and Partner Activities Conducted in Pairs • Phonological Awareness (e.g., saying first and last sounds, rhyming, counting sounds, segmenting, and blending) • Letter-Sound Correspondences (e.g., letters and letter combinations) • Decoding (e.g., words and sentences) • Fluency (e.g., sight words, stories, and book reading)
PALS in Grades 2-6 • Partner Reading (11-12 minutes) -Stronger reader reads for 5 minutes -Weaker reader rereads the same text for 5 minutes -Weaker reader retells selection for 1 min. ion grades 2-3 and for 2 min. in grades 4-6 • Paragraph Shrinking (10 minutes) -Stronger reader reads new text, stopping to summarize after each paragraph; states the most important who or what, tells what mainly happened, and gives main idea statement in 10 words or less (5 min) -Weaker reader continues with new text using same procedure (5 min) -
PALS in Grades 2-6 (Continued) • Prediction Relay (10 minutes) -Stronger reader makes prediction for next half page, reads half-page, stops to verify prediction for 5 minutes -Weaker reader continues with new text using the same strategy for 5 minutes
Error Correction in PALS • Reading aloud -Stop, You missed this word. Can you figure it out? Read the sentence again. -Reader waits longer than 4 seconds.) The word is ____. What word? Good! Read the sentence again. • Paragraph Shrinking -That’s not quite right. Skim the paragraph and try again. (Decide-correct, give points. Incorrect, tell the answer • Practice -Stories-Goldilocks and Little Red Riding Hood -Prompt card
UNIVERSAL TIER 1 ( Middle and High School) Building Continuously Improving General Education Instruction Use of Teaching Routines and Learning Strategies(Kansas) Well Designed Curriculum with “Big Idea” Focus Effective Secondary Classroom Management Study and Organizational Skills Curriculum Modification ~5% ~15% ~80% of Students
TIER 2 TARGETED: Strategic/Supplemental (Elementary): 1. Early (Soar to) Success (Houghton Mifflin) 2. Reading Mastery (SRA) 3. 6 Minute Solutions-F 4. Great Leaps (Diamuid, Inc.)*PA,P, F, 5. REWARDS (Sopris West)*P, F 6 Ladders to Literacy (Brookes) 7. Read Naturally *-F 8. Peer Assisted Learning Strategies: KPALS (PA, P) and PALS*-, F Earobics* (Tier III too)-PA Project READ* (Tier III too) ~5% ~15% ~80% of Students
TIER 2 TARGETED: Strategic/Supplemental (Middle School): 1. Early (Soar to) Success (Houghton Mifflin) 2. Reading Mastery (SRA) Early Reading Intervention (Scott Foresman) Great Leaps (Diamuid, Inc.)*-P 5. REWARDS (Sopris West)*-P 6 Ladders to Literacy (Brookes) 7. Read Naturally *-F 8. Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)*-F ~5% ~15% ~80% of Students
TIER 2 TARGETED: Strategic/Supplemental (High School): Consultation Support ~5% ~15% ~80% of Students
TIER 3: INTENSIVE Intervention (Elementary) 1. Corrective Reading (SRA)* 2. Language! (Sopris West) 3. Wilson Reading System* (Tier 2 also) 4. Reading Mastery 5. Earobics (phonics/phonemic awareness; Cognitive Concepts) 6. Great Leaps/ Read Naturally (Fluency) (Tier II also) 7. REWARDS (Fluency, Comp. and Vocab. in Plus Program) Soar to Success (comp.) Wilson Reading Program* Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing Reading Curriculum* ~5% ~15% ~80% of Students
TIER 3: INTENSIVE Intervention (Middle School and High School) Corrective Reading (SRA)* Failure Free Reading* Language! (Sopris West) Wilson Reading System* Reading Mastery 5. Earobics (phonics/phonemic awareness; Cognitive Concepts) Great Leaps/ Read Naturally (Fluency) REWARDS (Fluency, Comp. and Vocab. in Plus Program) Soar to Success (comp.) Lindamood-Bell Programs* (Phonics) Spell-Read P.A.T* ~5% ~15% ~80% of Students
Examples of Other Reading Interventions for Five Big Areas of Reading • More detailed instructions for the implementation of the following and other reading interventions can be downloaded at < http://dev.lilt.ilstu.edu/csss2006/solutions/index.html>
Acquisition-Letter or Sound Naming Bingo • A fun way to teach letter names or letter-sounds • Make copies of bingo cards and the picture and letter-squares • If the student draws the picture square, the student names the picture and gives the first letter of the name. Any student who has that letter on his or or card, should place a bingo chip on it. • If a letter square is drawn, without showing the students the card, read the letter name to the student. Any student with that letter on their card should place a bingo chip on it.
Critical Dimensions of Phonemic Awareness • Blending: “I’ll say the sounds of a word. You guess what the word is. What word is this? /fffuuunnn/ • Segmenting: “I’m going to say a word, and then I’ll say each sound in the word. Listen carefully. “man” /m/ /a/ /n/ • Now I’ll say a different word and you tell me each sound that you hear.
Phoneme Deletion or Substitution • Deletion: “I’m going to ask you to say a word and then to say it again without one or more of its sounds. Say “sat”. Now say it again, but don’t say /s/ (“at”). -Say “plate” but don’t say /p/. (“late”) -Say “plane” but don’t say /n// (“play”) • Substitution: Say “plane” but change /pl/ to /tr/ (“train”).
Phonics • Systematic and Explicit Phonics • Instruction significantly improves young children’s decoding, spelling, and reading comprehension and older students’ word reading and oral text reading skills. -Systematic: logical sequence and careful selection of letter-sounds for instruction -Explicit: precise directions for teachers or careful wording to emphasize accurate models for students and to make letter-sound relationships and conspicuous
Why is Phonics Instruction So Challenging for Many Teachers? • Many teacher preparation programs do not provide training in phonics instruction • The English alphabet contains 26 letters but we use roughly 44 phonemes. These sounds are represented by as many as 250 different spellings (e.g., /f/ as in ph, f, gh, ff) • Many core beginning reading programs have not emphasized systematic and explicit phonics instruction
Phonics Instruction • Use a functional sequence of letter-sounds , one that leads to rapid success in reading words. • Provide opportunities for practicing decoding skills both in word lists and in connected text.
Systematic and Explicit Phonics Instruction • Introduce most common sound for a new letter /k/ for “C” • Separate instruction of potentially confusing letters due to visual or auditory similarity h/n, e/I. b/d) • May introduce lower case letters first (more functional) • Start with high-utility letters (s,t, m, and vowels, not z, x)
Systematic and Explicit Phonics Instruction(Cont.) • Select words that start with continuous sounds rather than stop sounds when beginning to sound out words-or for blending to sound and segmenting practice (use “mat” before “bat”) • Potential sequence for introducing letters <a,m, t, s, S, i, f, d, r, o, O, g, l, h, u, U, c, C, b,n, k, K, v, V, e, w,W, j, p, P, y, Y, T, L, M, F, D, I, N, A, R, E, H, G, B, x,X, q, z, Z, J, Q>
Fluency • Repeated and monitored oral reading significantly improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement • Caution: Silent, independent reading with little guidance or feedback may not be enough to improve fluency and overall reading achievement
Why Fluency is Important • More fluent readers focus their attention on making connections among the ideas in a text and between these ideas and their background knowledge. Therefore, they are able to focus on comprehension • Less fluent readers focus their attention primarily on decoding and accessing meaning of individual words. Therefore, they appear to have little attention left for comprehending connected text
Fluency Interventions • Model fluent reading. Have students reread text themselves. Read aloud daily. • Students should read aloud repeatedly with guidance. • Use text at independent level (approx 95% accuracy) • Use adults, peers, or tape recorders for modeling and practicing one to one (although can do class wide partner reading). Choral reading may engage groups of students.
Fluency Interventions (Cont.) • Activities can include: -Student-adult reading -Choral reading -Tape-assisted reading -Partner Reading -Reader’s theatre
Vocabulary • Many words are learned indirectly through everyday experiences with oral and written language (e.g., conversations, listening to others read, reading independently). • However, some vocabulary words must be taught directly through specific word instruction or through word-learning strategies
Direct Vocabulary Learning: Specific Word Instruction • Direct vocabulary instruction aids in comprehension • However, a text may have too many unknown words for direct instruction-be selective with vocabulary. Students do not have to know all words in order to understand text. • Words selected should be important, useful, and difficult. • Teach specific words prior to reading text (e.g., use a model, synonym, or definition) • Repeat exposure to vocabulary often and in many different contexts • Teach word-learning strategies (use of dictionaries and other reference tools, contextual clues, word parts)
Direct Vocabulary Learning: Specific Word Instruction (Cont.) • An important aspect of teaching vocabulary is selecting a set of appropriate examples
Examples for Specific Word Instruction • Model the concept “above”. Use hand or object and place above or not above other objects (demonstrate position). • Teach meaning or “gigantic” by using the known synonym “large”. Connect to prior knowledge, check with examples and non-examples, and use in sentences • Teach meaning by providing definition”: “exit-a door that leads out of the building. Is this (point to front door) an exit or not? How do you know?
Comprehension • IS the reason for reading • Comprehension is both purposeful and active. Good readers have a purpose for reading, and they think actively about what they are reading as they are doing it (metacognition-monitoring understanding during reading and applying “fix up” strategies, such as adjusting reading speed and rereading; also checking understanding afterward).
Effective Comprehension Strategies • Comprehension Monitoring-involves students using a set of steps to recognize when they have difficulty understanding • Graphic and semantic organizers (webs, charts, frames)-to illustrate relationships among ideas and events • Summarizing-involves synthesis of important idea; helps to identify main ideas, eliminate unnecessary information, and remember content • Answering questions and generating own questions-helps students to establish purpose, focus, attention, think, and monitor actively, review content, and relate content to prior knowledge.
Comprehension Strategies (cont). • Story Structure-knowledge of story parts (e.g., characters, setting, problem, sequence of events, problem resolution) facilitates comprehension • Cooperative learning-students work together to apply comprehension strategies. Effective with clearly defined tasks and content-area reading. • Multiple-strategy instruction-students use different strategies flexibly as needed to assist their comprehension
Comprehension Strategies Should Be Taught Directly • As with other “big ideas” in reading instruction, comprehension strategies must be taught explicitly -Provide explanations--why strategy helps and when it should be applied -Model or demonstrate strategy-think aloud -Provide guided practice using strategy -Scaffold assistance during practice opportunities until students become independent in applying strategy
Letter Name Acquisition-Discrete Trial Learning • Give the student an unknown letter-name probe. • Two Known letter cards and 1 unknown letter cards are placed in front of the student • Tell the student to point to the unknown card. • A) If the correct letter is named, the cards are mixed and placed in front of the student who is asked to point to the unknown letter again. When the student is able to correctly point to the unknown letter five times the letter becomes known.
Letter Name Acquisition-Discrete Trial Learning • Then, one of the original known cards is removed leaving the new known card and the old known card . Finally a new unknown card is added to the grouping. B) If an incorrect letter is named, the student is told the correct name and asked to repeat the correct letter name. Then the cards are mixed and placed in the front of the student again. The examiner asks the student to point to the unknown letter. • Steps 2 & 3 are repeated until all of the unknown cards are considered known
Letter Naming-Listening Passage Preview • Place the Letter naming probe in front of the student. • Explain that the examiner will read the probe to them before the student is allowed to read it to them. May need to point to each letter as they read the probe in order to keep the student’s attention • Read the probe correctly • Allow the student to read the probe and note any errors. • Repeat with different probes as often as desired.
Research Based Interventions-Reading Fluency Repeated Reading • Objectives: To increase fluent reading on passages students read with high accuracy • In repeated readings of the same passage, the student tries to beat his/her previous score (errors and rate) • Materials: Texts that the student can read with at least 95% accuracy
Research Based Interventions-Reading Fluency Duet Reading • Objective/Method: To increase fluent reading particularly for students who lose their spot or just don’t get to the next word quickly enough. First Reading-student reads a passage aloud. Second Reading-Teacher and student take turns reading EVERY OTHER WORD. Third Reading-Student reads the entire passage alone • Materials: Short texts that the student can read with at least 95% accuracy
Research Based Interventions-Reading Fluency-Newscaster Reading • Objective: To increase prosody (expression) for students who have difficulty with phrasing and expression • Materials: Short texts at the student’s instructional level (can read with at least 95% accuracy)
Research Based Interventions-Reading Fluency-Newscaster Reading • Teacher reads with excellent expression-just slightly (about 10%) faster then the student reads. • If the student doesn’t keep going with your voice, say “uh, oh, keep your voice with mine and start again until they keep up”.
Research Based Interventions-Reading Fluency-Partner Reading • Objective: Given a selected text, students will increase fluency by rereading it. • Materials: Copies of short texts at lower-performing reader’s instructional level for each pair of participating students. • This can be a whole class intervention (Tier I)