SECONDARY INTERVENTIONS TRAINING Teri Lewis Oregon State University
The Challenge • Students come to school without skills to respond to instructional and behavioral expectations (Sprague, Sugai & Walker, 1998). • Teachers report that “uncivil” behavior is increasing and is a threat to effective learning (Skiba and Peterson, 2000). • Students who display severe problem behavior are at-risk for segregated placement (Reichle, 1990).
The Challenge • Exclusion and punishment are the most common responses to severe problem behavior in schools (Lane & Murakami, 1987; Patterson, Reid & Dishon, 1992). • Exclusion and punishment are ineffective at producing long-term reduction in problem behavior (Costenbader & Markson, 1998; Walker et al., 1996).
The Challenge • Punishing problem behaviors, without a proactive support system, is associated with increases in: • Aggression • Vandalism • Truancy • Dropping out
The Response • Need a prevention focus “Schools that are safe, effective, and controlled are not accidents.”(Sugai, Sprague, Horner & Walker, 2000) • Need to build school capacity to support all students • Need a continuum of behavior support • Level and intensity of intervention matches severity of problem
“Positive Behavior Support” PBS is a broad range of systemic & individualized strategies for achieving important social & learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior with all students.
Social Competence & Academic Achievement Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
Prerequisites • Effective & proactive School-wide system in place • Team-based problem solving • Local behavioral capacity • Functional assessment-based behavior support planning • Social skills programming • Behavioral interventions • Administrator participation
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Tertiary Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Tertiary Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Secondary Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Secondary Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Primary Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Primary Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
School-wide discipline is… 1. Identify a common purpose and approach to discipline 2. Define a clear set of positive expectations and behaviors 3. Implement procedures for teaching expected behavior 4. Differentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Differentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Implement procedures for on-going monitoring and evaluation
Training Objectives • Review fundamentals of systems approach • Understand elements of secondary interventions • Identify components of secondary intervention process • Develop action plan as to how secondary interventions will be implemented
Purpose To describe considerations & procedures for developing & sustaining individual student systems
Factors & Challenges to ISS • Problem behaviors are high intensity &/or frequency. • Too many students display significant problem behavior at any one time. • Problem behaviors are disrupting learning & teaching environments. • Problem behaviors are difficult to understand. • Interventions are ineffective.
Factors & Challenges to ISS • Insufficient number of minutes to collect information, conduct meetings, implement & monitor plans. • Administrative leadership & support is lacking, unavailable, or underdeveloped. • Staff are unable or untrained to implement interventions, & lack opportunities for continuous & applied professional development.
Factors & Challenges to ISS • Overemphasis on form, policy, or regulation rather than on process. 10. Lack of continuum of positive behavior support.
Requirements for ISS • Behavior must be considered within context in which it is observed. • As intensity of problem behavior increases, so must intensity & complexity of functional behavioral assessment & behavior support planning process.
Requirements for ISS • Individuals who develop & implement behavior support plans must be behaviorally competent & able to… • conduct fluently functional behavioral assessment-based behavior intervention planning. • facilitate efficient development, implementation, evaluation of behavior support plans. • collect & analyze student performance data. • develop academic & social behavior support plans that are based on research validated practices.
Requirements for ISS • Decisions regarding effectiveness & efficiency of implementation of behavior support plan must be based in data. • Efficiency & effectiveness of implementation system of individual student support are related directly to effectiveness & efficiency of school-wide behavior support systems for all students, staff, & settings.
Requirements for ISS • The longer problem behavior has been occurring, the more resistant it may be to intervention. • Staff need sustained & effective support to respond effectively & efficiently to significant problem behavior. • Efficient team-based approach & process to problem solving must be in place.
Universal Interventions • School-wide discipline system for all students, staff, & settings that is effective for “80%” of students. • Clearly & positively stated expectations. • Procedures for teaching expectations. • Continuum of procedures for teaching expectations. • Continuum of procedures for encouraging expectations. • Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations. • Procedures for monitoring & modifying procedures.
Targeted Group Interventions (Secondary) • Specialized group administered system for students who display high-risk problem behavior & are unresponsive to universal interventions. • Functional assessment based intervention decisions. • Daily behavioral monitoring. • Regular & frequent opportunities for positive reinforcement. • Home-school connection. • Individualized academic accommodations for academic success. • Planned social skills instruction. • Behaviorally based interventions.
Individual Interventions • Specialized individually administered system for students who display most challenging problem behavior & are unresponsive to targeted group interventions. • Simple request for assistance. • Immediate response (24-48 hours). • Functional behavioral assessment-based behavior support planning. • Team-based problem solving process. • Data-based decision making. • Comprehensive service delivery derived from a wraparound process.
Process for Establishing ISS • Establish Behavior Support Team to guide/lead process. • Secure & establish behavioral competence within school. • Develop three level system of school-wide behavior support: • Universal Interventions • Targeted Group Interventions (Secondary) • Individual Interventions
Process for Establishing ISS • Establish data decision system for matching level of intervention to student. • Simple & direct request for assistance process for staff. • Data decision rule for requesting assistance based on number of major behavioral incidents.
Process for Establishing ISS • Establish a continuous data-based system to monitor, evaluate, & improve effectiveness & efficiency. • Are students displaying improved behaviors? • Are staff implementing procedures with high fidelity? • What can be modified to improve outcomes? • What can be eliminated to improve efficiency?
OVERVIEW of SECONDARY INTERVENTIONS Function-based Strategies to Support At-risk Students
Acknowledgements • OSEP National PBIS Center • Northwest PBIS Network • Rob Horner, Leanne Hawken, Rob March • Fern Ridge Middle School, Clear Lake Elementary, Templeton Elementary, …
Purpose Develop specialized, group system for addressing needs of students with at-risk or significant problem behaviors
Prerequisites • Effective & proactive universal system as foundation • Systems to support implementation • Evidence Based Practices • preferred or promising • On-going data-based decision-making • Identification, students monitoring, implementation fidelity, program evaluation • Teach basic (general case) before specialized skills
Important Themes- Review: Tim Lewis Part of a continuum – must link to school-wide PBS system Efficient and effective way to identify students Assessment = simple sort Intervention matched to presenting problem but not highly individualized
However, • There is a difference between how to teach and what to teach • How = EBP guidelines • Social skills, self-management, daily monitoring • What = skill identification, types and range of groups/programs
Secondary Interventions - Review Tim Lewis Consider Not fixed group Student’s needs vary across continuum over time and within academic/social area Least intrusive but matched to student need Effective and efficient
Group-based Programming Requirements • Targeted, individualized, small group interventions • based on functional behavior assessment information • social skills instruction • behavioral programming • multiple opportunities for high rates of academic success
Group-based Programming Requirements • Daily behavioral monitoring • self- and/or adult • Regular, frequent opportunities for positive reinforcement • tangible to social • external to internal • predictable to unpredictable • frequent to infrequent • Home-school connection
Other Strategies • Behavioral contracts • Adult mentor/monitor • Targeted social skills instruction • problem solving • conflict management • Self-management programming • Academic restructuring
Critical Features • Intervention is continuously available • Rapid access to intervention (less than a week) • Very low effort by teachers • Positive system of support • Students agree to participate • Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school • Flexible intervention based on assessment • Functional behavioral assessment
Critical Features • Adequate resources allocated (admin, team) • Continuous monitoring for decision-making • Administrative support • Time & money allocated • No major changes in school climate • e.g., teacher strikes, administrative turnover, major changes in funding • Plan implementation a top priority
Activity 1: Readiness Checklist • School-wide system of behavior support • Staff buy-in for implementation • Administrative support • Time and money allocation • No major changes in school climate • Secondary Intervention implementation is a top priority
Example: Behavior Education Program (BEP)(March & Horner, 1998) • Need • 7% of students with chronic problem behavior • Targeted, group based intervention needed • Expected to work for most but not all students • Interventions must be functional assessment based • 24 students at Fern Ridge participated in Secondary Interventions
BEP Features • Students identified with multiple office referrals • Student-parent-school contract formed • Connection to school-wide expectations • Individualized, daily monitoring
BEP Set-up • Teach students, teachers, & parents routines • Establish school & home reinforcers • Establish data collection system • Conduct abbreviated FBAs
BEP Daily Cycle 1. Check in office at arrival to school • Reminder binder • Pre-corrections • Turn in previous days signed Daily Progress Report (DPR) form • Pick-up new DPR form • Review daily goals
BEP Daily Cycle 2. At each class • Student completes DPR card • Teacher checks & initials 3. Check out at end of day • Review the points & goals for the day • Receive reinforcer if goal met • Take successful day card home • Pre-corrections
BEP Daily Cycle 4. Give successful day card to parent(s) • receive reinforcer from parent • have parent sign card 5. Return signed card next day
Student Recommended for Secondary Interventions (SI) SI Implemented SI Coordinator Summarizes Data For Decision Making Morning Check-in Parent Feedback Regular Teacher Feedback Bi-weekly SI Meeting to Assess Student Progress Afternoon Check-out Revise Program Exit Program