13 British Colonies. Southern Colonies. England’s First American Colonies. Promoted by wealthy gentlemen, English patriots, and devout Protestants Needed to generate new wealth for England. Roanoke. Raleigh tried to colonize Roanoke twice. First colonists returned home.
England’s First American Colonies • Promoted by wealthy gentlemen, English patriots, and devout Protestants • Needed to generate new wealth for England
Roanoke • Raleigh tried to colonize Roanoke twice. • First colonists returned home. • Second group vanished.
Virginia Company • Corporation of merchants from London • Went to Chesapeake Bay
Powhatan • Very powerful chief • Wanted to trade with colonists • Colonists wanted lands
Primary Source: Captain John Smith wrote of Chief Powhatan: He is of parsonage a tall well proportioned man . . . his head somwhat gray. . . . His age neare 60; of a very able and hardybody to endure any labour. What he commandeth they dare not disobey in the least thing. It is strange to see with what great feare and adoration all these people doe obay this Powhatan. For at his feet, they present whatsoever he commandeth, and at the least frowne of his browe, their greatest spirits will tremble with feare: and no marvell, for he is very terrible and tyrannous in punishing such as offend him.
Jamestown • Surrounded by swamps • Only 20% of the population survived from 1607 to 1622.
Jamestown: Conflict with Native Americans • 1609-War between colonists & Indians • 1613-English captured Pocahontas • Powhatan made peace • Opechancanough
Jamestown: Tobacco • Jamestown was unprofitable with unhappy colonists • John Rolfe taught colonists to grow tobacco • Very profitable crop • Brought more people to Virginia
Free land! • Headright system-pay for trip to Virginia and earn 50 free acres • Enabled wealthy to get large plantations • Owners imported workers from England • Virginia began to grow
House of Burgesses • First representative body in colonial America • Male landowners over 17 voted for two Burgesses to represent their settlement • Make laws & raise taxes • 1624-First royal colony • royal colony-belongs to the king/queen • proprietary colony-belongs to powerful people/companies
Expansion in Virginia • Wars with Algonquins • Bacon’s Rebellion
Maryland • Charles I gave Maryland to Lord Baltimore • Refuge for fellow Catholics
The Carolinas • Belonged to a group of English aristocrats who remained in England • 1729-Colonists revolted and demanded to become a royal colony
Georgia • Led by James Oglethorpe • Buffer colony • Refuge for debtors • Royal colony in 1752
Puritans • Wanted to purify the Anglican Church • Persecuted during the 1620s
Puritans in Massachusetts • Also called Pilgrims • Mayflower Compact: agreement of govt. and laws
Massachusetts Bay Colony • Led by John Winthrop • Only colonial govt. to elect its own governor
Religious Dissenters • Roger Williams • Anne Hutchinson
Salem Witch Trials • Accusations of witchcraft • 1692-Executed 19 suspected witches
Conflict with the Native Americans • The Pequot War • Praying Towns • King Philip’s War
New Netherland • Government: Dutch West India Co. appointed the governor and an advisory council • Tolerated various religious groups
New Netherlands: Push and Pull Factors • Push factors: motivate people to leave home country • Pull factors: attract people to a new location • Better life & fertile soil: pull
New Sweden • Lower Delaware River • Fur trade & grain farming • Dutch governor, Peter Stuyvesant, took over
The English Conquest • New York-became an English colony • English forced Gov. Stuyvesant to surrender his colony • Renamed New York • New Jersey established • Lands between Hudson & Delaware Rivers became New Jersey
Pennsylvania • Founded by William Penn • Capital-Philadelphia, “city of brotherly love” • Became prosperous quickly • fertile soil • temperate climate • friendly with Indians
Pennsylvania • Quaker beliefs • No clergy • Women considered equal to men • Refused to bear arms • Tolerated other faiths
Diversity in the Middle Colonies • Ethnic & religious diversity • Dutch, Swedes, Finns, French Protestants, Germans, Norwegians, Scots, & English • Quakers, Baptists, Anglicans, Presbyterians, Lutherans, Dutch Reformed, German Reformed, & Jews