British Colonies Unit 1.4
Coastal Cities • Cities in the Colonies were on the water. Why? • By 1750, the largest (Primary) cities were: Philadelphia, NYC, Boston, Charles Town, and Baltimore • Primary Port Towns: Headquarters for large scale trading • Secondary Port Towns – Smaller cities that handled inter-colonial trading. Not regulated by Crown as much. More smuggling. • Political activism would emerge out of these ports • Fall Line cities – those on rivers as far as a boat could reach • Connected frontier to coastal communities
New England Colonies • Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Rhode Island • Had a diversified economy • Farming, shipbuilding, trading, fishing, industry, timber • Slavery would die out. Why? • Towns – base of social and political life – Town Meetings • Dominion of New England – united together for short time in late 1600s, but ended after Glorious Revolution (1689) • First time of colonies uniting • Why did crown not want that?
Massachusetts, RI, and Plymouth • Plymouth colony founded by Pilgrims but later merges with Massachusetts. • Massachusetts founded by Puritans and biggest in New England • Rhode Island – founded by Roger Williams • Lived up to idea of Separation of church and government • Paid Indians for land
Connecticut and New Hampshire Connecticut • Rev. Thomas Hooker left Mass. and started Hartford • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – established representative government New Hampshire • King separated it from Mass. as he wanted to weaken power • (notice Vermont and Maine not colonies- why?)
Middle Colonies • New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware • Cosmopolitan and diverse economy • Agriculture more diverse and slavery dies out • Representative government emerges strongly here.
New York and New Jersey New York • James, Duke of York takes over Dutch in 1664 • Renames New Amsterdam New York • When James tried to rule without assembly, taxation without representation met great opposition New Jersey • Founded by Swedish and Finnish, taken over by Dutch and then English
Pennsylvania (and Delaware too) • William Penn and Quakers • How was it acquired? • “Holy Experiment” – very cosmopolitan • Charter of Liberties – guaranteed freedom of worship to all • How is this different than Massachusetts? • Proprietary Colony – granted to individual by king • Delaware started when Penn allowed 3 counties to split
Chesapeake Colonies • Virginia, Maryland, (and Pennsylvania and Delaware) • Center of British Colonies • Colonies developed in different ways • Tidewater area is the area near water • Plantation based economy
Maryland and Virginia • Maryland • Founded by Lord Baltimore (George Calvert) as a haven for Catholics • Proprietary colony • Act of Toleration – 1639 allowed for the freedom of religion • What groups had freedoms? • Virginia • After Virginia Company failed, it was made a Royal colony • Lasting problem of divide between rich and poor • Most powerful of all colonies
Southern Colonies • Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina (could include Virginia and Maryland too) • Plantation economy based on cash crops • Tobacco, rice, and indigo (Not cotton yet!) • Why did Indentured servitude die out? • Hierarchy in social structure • Planters on top • How was women’s power as single compared to married? • More health problems than north due to poor water.
Georgia and the Carolina Georgia • Founded by James Oglethorpe • Founded for 2 reasons • Buffer colony against Spanish Fla • Prison colony (mainly debtors) • Why debtors? • Carolinas • Remember those younger brothers? • Royal Colony with tracts of land given to King’s friends and family • SC – more aristocratic • NC – more small farms • Split in 1729
Reflection Questions • How were the economies different with the different regions of the British North American colonies? • Over time, what happened with slavery in different colonies? • Where did cities develop and why? • How were the colonies that started for religious reasons different in their tolerance of other religious groups?
Links • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3-iRa6jtuh4 – Review video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t-9pDZMRCpQ – school house rock • http://www.history.com/topics/thirteen-colonies - colonies video • http://americanhistory.about.com/library/charts/blcolonial13.htm - colonies chart