The 13 Colonies & the British Empire. Key Points for discussion. Discuss the 3 types of charters (colonies) Corporate (Jamestown) Royal (VA after 1624) Propietary Chesapeake Colonies: MD & VA Why did MD have great religious tolerance (Act of Toleration/Protestant revolt
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Key Points for discussion
Chesapeake Colonies: MD & VA
PA & Delaware
Ch 3:The Rise of Colonial America
English Migration 1610–1660
(Chapter 3) 1639–1656 Attack on Mystic Fort, Pequot War
The turning point of the Pequot War was the English-led assault on the fortified Pequot village at Mystic, Connecticut. An officer, John Underhill, included this view of the attack with his published account. It shows how he and John Mason led soldiers through the two openings in the fort’s walls. You can see the soldiers firing on Pequots, some of whom defend themselves while others, mostly unarmed, are shot in the back. More English troops surround the fort and, at two places, engage Pequot defenders. Narragansett Indian allies of the English form a second perimeter behind these troops, ready to cut down any Pequots trying to escape. Why did English officers place the Narragansetts on the outside rather than elsewhere during the attack?
Although neither the fort nor the English and Narragansett formations would have been perfectly circular, the drawing clearly shows the English strategy for attacking the village. But while it depicts some unarmed Pequots being killed, the picture does not make clear that relatively few in the village were armed, able-bodied males. Most such men had left Mystic to fight the war, trusting that the fort’s walls and its few defenders would adequately protect the 300 to 700 (estimates vary) women, children, and elders inside. Nor does the picture indicate that as soon as Underhill and Mason’s men encountered resistance, they ordered their men to burn the village. The massive assault, then, was directed not against an armed encampment but against noncombatants, most of whom were burned to death. Such a mode of warfare was until then unprecedentedamong Native Americans.
Pattern of Settlement in Surry County, Virginia, 1620–1660
Death, Gender, & Kinship
Tobacco shapes region
(Chapter 3) 1639–1656Tobacco Label
Tobacco is a plant of course, but above all, it is a product and a commodity. This label appeared on packages of tobacco marketed by a London merchant named Kositzky. In the center of the top panel, an enslaved African wields a scythe to cut down tobacco plants. The crest under which he works proclaims the nobility of agricultural labor. The lower panel seems to suggest that the gentleman sitting on the left reached into the barrel, pinched a bit of tobacco for his pipe bowl, and lit up. Two other gentlemen examine some tobacco leaves, apparently admiring their quality, while a slave arrives with a drink for one of them.
We can begin to understand this advertising’s appeal to English consumers by looking more closely at the people and lifestyles it portrays. We see two distinct kinds of people—scantily clad black slaves and wealthy, handsomely attired white gentlemen. The picture betrays no evidence of tension, conflict, or exploitation, and the two peoples each play clearly defined roles. Note the absence of either black or white women. Tobacco was marketed to white men who either enjoyed or aspired to enjoy the leisurely lives of gentlemen. As gentlemen, they were above performing manual labor themselves but liked to think that they were benevolent toward those who did work, especially those whom they supervised or were otherwise associated. In smoking Kositzky’s Best Virginia, the label assured them, they consumed a product that was not only for gentlemen but developed by gentlemen whose laborers were contentand well treated.
Show society under deep stress; marginal taxpayers & desperate former servants, & wealthy outside of Berkeley’s inner circle
NC & SC separates 1712
Tuscarora War in NC 1711-1713
Hundreds Indians sold into slavery
Became 6th Nation of Iroquois
Yamasee War in SC
By 1720 all coastal Indians in southern colonies devastated
The Mid Atlantic Colonies
Fr lost Canada to Eng but resumed & extended colonies there
FL & TX