The 13 colonies the british empire
1 / 47

The 13 Colonies & the British Empire - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

The 13 Colonies & the British Empire. Key Points for discussion. Discuss the 3 types of charters (colonies) Corporate (Jamestown) Royal (VA after 1624) Propietary Chesapeake Colonies: MD & VA Why did MD have great religious tolerance (Act of Toleration/Protestant revolt

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' The 13 Colonies & the British Empire' - martina-mclean

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
The 13 colonies the british empire

The 13 Colonies & the British Empire

Key Points for discussion

  • Discuss the 3 types of charters (colonies)

    • Corporate (Jamestown)

    • Royal (VA after 1624)

    • Propietary

      Chesapeake Colonies: MD & VA

  • Why did MD have great religious tolerance (Act of Toleration/Protestant revolt

  • Discuss VA in terms of Bacon’s Rebellion, labor shortages

New england
New England

  • How did RI become the haven for people of various faiths (Roger, Anne)?

  • CT (royal) drew up Fundamental Orders of Conn, Why is this important?

  • NH (royal): How did it become a colony?

    New England

  • Discuss attitude of Puritan’s new generation toward religion

  • How was their relationship with Native Indians (NE Confederation, King Philip’s War)

Restoration colonies charles ii
Restoration Colonies (Charles II)

  • The Carolinas (royal): What was their original charter? What’s the difference between N.C & S.C?

  • How did NY get established?

  • How did NJ get est.?


PA & Delaware

  • Discuss PA in terms of Quakers, Mr. Penn, “The Holy Experiment”, and Delaware

  • GA is the what colony? Why changed from proprietary to royal


  • Navigation Acts: Discuss the positive & negative impacts on colonies

  • How did Britain enforce mercantilist policies?

  • What was James’ purpose for creating the Dominion of New England?

The institution of slavery
The Institution of Slavery

  • Why was demand for slaves increased?

  • Discuss some slave laws (MA, VA, then MD)

  • What’s the Triangular Trade & how did it affect slavery?

Big question
Big Question

  • To what extent did the Puritan founders shape the development of an American culture

    • Individualism vs. conformity

Enduring vision

Enduring Vision

Ch 3:The Rise of Colonial America


New england way plymouth1620
New England Way: Plymouth1620

  • Plymouth: Separatists called Pilgrims went to Holland & from there in 1620 small group sailed on Mayflower

    • One died on route & one born named Oceanus

    • ½ died during winter

    • 1621 celebrated 1st Thanksgiving due to help from Native Americans

    • Leaders include Cp. Miles Standish & Gov.William Bradford

    • Fish, furs, & lumber

  • Majority rule: Mayflower Compact reflect self-gov’t and early written constitution

  • Small compared to giant neighbor Mass. Bay

Plymouth and mass bay colonies
Plymouth and Mass. Bay Colonies

  • 2 Puritan Colonies: Plymouth (separatist) and Massachusetts Bay

  • Puritans were a threat to James I;

  • Puritans wanted to purify Church of England from Catholic rituals

New england massachusetts bay 1630
New England: Massachusetts Bay 1630

English Migration 1610–1660

  • Not Separatists; persecuted by new king, Charles I

  • 1630: Came with Ma. Bay Co. led by John Winthrop

    • Great Migration (15,000 more settlers) during 1630s due to a civil war

  • Rep. gov’t albeit limited

Map 3 2 land divisions in sudbury massachusetts 1639 1656
Map 3.2: Land Divisions in Sudbury, Massachusetts, 1639–1656

  • “We shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us.”

  • Reflect European’s understanding of social hierarchical order

  • Rich show charity to poor, who accepts rule by their superior, as god’s will

New england dissent orthodoxy
New England: Dissent & Orthodoxy 1639–1656

  • Dissidents got kicked out of Plymouth and M. Bay & formed other colonies

  • Rhode Island “Sewer” (Rogues’ Island): 1644 chartered

    • Roger William founded Providence, believed that conscience is beyond civil or church authority; respected Indian rights; provided religious freedom for C, Q, & J

    • Anne Hutchinson believed in antinomianism (faith alone, not deeds), founded Portsmouth; killed in Indian uprising

      • Though pregnant, she set out on foot to RI

New england continues connecticut
New England continues: Connecticut 1639–1656

  • Rev Thomas Hooker led unhappy Puritans to Conn. River Valley;

  • He founded Hartford in 1636

    • first written constitution in US history

  • John Davenport founded New Haven in 1637

  • New Haven and Hartford formed by royal charter

  • Friction w/ Indians led to Pequot War & King Philip’s War

(Chapter 3) 1639–1656 Attack on Mystic Fort, Pequot War

The turning point of the Pequot War was the English-led assault on the fortified Pequot village at Mystic, Connecticut. An officer, John Underhill, included this view of the attack with his published account. It shows how he and John Mason led soldiers through the two openings in the fort’s walls. You can see the soldiers firing on Pequots, some of whom defend themselves while others, mostly unarmed, are shot in the back. More English troops surround the fort and, at two places, engage Pequot defenders. Narragansett Indian allies of the English form a second perimeter behind these troops, ready to cut down any Pequots trying to escape. Why did English officers place the Narragansetts on the outside rather than elsewhere during the attack?

Although neither the fort nor the English and Narragansett formations would have been perfectly circular, the drawing clearly shows the English strategy for attacking the village. But while it depicts some unarmed Pequots being killed, the picture does not make clear that relatively few in the village were armed, able-bodied males. Most such men had left Mystic to fight the war, trusting that the fort’s walls and its few defenders would adequately protect the 300 to 700 (estimates vary) women, children, and elders inside. Nor does the picture indicate that as soon as Underhill and Mason’s men encountered resistance, they ordered their men to burn the village. The massive assault, then, was directed not against an armed encampment but against noncombatants, most of whom were burned to death. Such a mode of warfare was until then unprecedentedamong Native Americans.

  • In their written accounts, Underhill and other English writers described the burning of the village and its inhabitants, and countered the criticisms of such methods that readers might make. Why might he have declined to depict the burning in this picture?

Chapter 3 attack on mystic fort pequot war 1637
(Chapter 3) 1639–1656Attack on Mystic Fort, Pequot War 1637

  • Forced few survivors into “praying towns”

  • Led to pan Indian alliance led by Metacom (K Phillips)

    • War 1675: Metacom’s wife and son sold into slavery

    • No more overt threat to NE

New england continues new hampshire
New England continues: New Hampshire 1639–1656

  • Last one in New England; used to be part of Massachusetts Bay

  • King Charles II separated it from Bay in 1679 by granting royal charter

  • Ruled by appointed governor

New england power to the saints 1630 1660
New England: Power to the Saints 1630-1660 1639–1656

  • Puritans & Separatists= self-governing

  • male “saints” = saved; choose minister & elders (decisions on $$); decides who becomes saints

    • greater participation than in Europe & other colonies

    • profess Calvinism, repent sins, no scandals (English Puritans)

    • stand before congregation & provide convincing account of conversion experience (Mass. Puritans)

  • required no property for voters & officeholders: 1641: 55% male voted vs. 30% in England

  • 1644 General Court became bicameral

  • towns determine qualification for voting, holding office; decide who settles & distribute land

    • Dedham’s 46 founders got 128Th acres ‘1636 but distributed only 3Th among themselves by 1656. The rest in trust for the future generations

  • tightly clustered neighborhoods at center of town = reciprocity, mutual watchfulness

    • role of women: exchange goods, support each other & the poor (Mary Rolfe sexual harassment case)

Halfway covenant 1662
halfway covenant 1662 1639–1656

  • children not joining the elect = membership crisis = dislike public grilling

    • baptized only babies born to saints = 3rd generation fewer as few got baptized

    • solution: Half-Way Covenants = children of baptized adult & non-saints can be baptized

      • pass membership to grandchildren = adult children (2nd “halfway” members

  • dilemma: membership to pure saint or compromise purity for power of Puritans in NE = chose worldly power instead of purity

  • sainthood tended to remain in certain families; male authority

  • Native born Puritans were less religious causing clergymen to offer a halfway covenant (Church service without declaring total belief in Christ)

Map 3 4 the geography of witchcraft salem village 1692
Map 3.4: The Geography of Witchcraft: Salem Village, 1692 1639–1656

  • reciprocity gave way to competitive society

  • Prosperous eastern Salem vs. poor western section

  • court ignored ban on “spectral evidence” (spirit resembled the accused tormenting victims)

  • Reflects class division & social change in NE

New england economy
New England Economy 1639–1656

  • shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, small-scale subsistence farming, and eventually, manufacturing.

  • The colonies prospered, reflecting the Puritans’ strong belief in the values of hard work and thrift

Chesapeake virginia
Chesapeake: Virginia 1639–1656

  • Jamestown,1607 by the Va Co of London as a business venture, was the first permanent English settlement in North America

  • The VA House of Burgesses was the first elected assembly in the New World.

  • It has operated continuously and is today known as the General Assembly of Virginia.

  • Church of England…6 vestrymen in each parish controls church finances

  • shortage of clergymen; religion had little influence

  • Head-right system: 50 acres to

    • each immigrant who paid for his own passage

    • any planter who paid for an immigrant’s passage.

Pattern of Settlement in Surry County, Virginia, 1620–1660

Chesapeake southern colony maryland
Chesapeake: Southern colony Maryland 1639–1656

  • 1st proprietary colony by George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) chartered by Charles I

  • Goal was to provide haven for Catholics, though majority Protestant farmers

  • His son Cecil Calvert

    • 1634, Act of Toleration: religious freedom to all Christians but death to those denied divinity of Jesus

    • Protestant revolt led to repeal of it

Chesapeake va md
Chesapeake: VA & MD 1639–1656

Death, Gender, & Kinship

  • 1630-1700 immigrants were mainly indenture servants (90%), of which 80% men

  • women at advantage in negotiating favorable marriages (including rich planters)

  • killers before 1650 by contaminated water: typhoid, dysentery, & salt poisoning

    • after 1650: malaria due to sailors & slaves

    • life expectancy: 48 for men, 44 for women = 20 yrs. lower than NE

    • servants died 40% during first 6 yr. Of arrival; 70% by age 49.

    • Women Widows had economic independence but still remarried to farm her fields

    • Stepparents: normal

  • deaths retarded pop. Growth but recovered as native born built resistance

    Tobacco shapes region

  • few neighbors: 12 families in 25sq. miles, isolated, depended on tobacco

  • tobacco dominated in 1618 & sank (97%) in 1629 but still profitable until 1660

  • built wharf on river; stunned urban growth in Chesapeake

  • rich/poor gap bigger than NE; exploited indentured servants (2/3 in VA) who entered freedom impoverished

  • 50 yr. Depression began 1660 as tobacco price fell

    • servants: penalties for minor infractions to lengthen service

(Chapter 3) 1639–1656Tobacco Label

Tobacco is a plant of course, but above all, it is a product and a commodity. This label appeared on packages of tobacco marketed by a London merchant named Kositzky. In the center of the top panel, an enslaved African wields a scythe to cut down tobacco plants. The crest under which he works proclaims the nobility of agricultural labor. The lower panel seems to suggest that the gentleman sitting on the left reached into the barrel, pinched a bit of tobacco for his pipe bowl, and lit up. Two other gentlemen examine some tobacco leaves, apparently admiring their quality, while a slave arrives with a drink for one of them.

We can begin to understand this advertising’s appeal to English consumers by looking more closely at the people and lifestyles it portrays. We see two distinct kinds of people—scantily clad black slaves and wealthy, handsomely attired white gentlemen. The picture betrays no evidence of tension, conflict, or exploitation, and the two peoples each play clearly defined roles. Note the absence of either black or white women. Tobacco was marketed to white men who either enjoyed or aspired to enjoy the leisurely lives of gentlemen. As gentlemen, they were above performing manual labor themselves but liked to think that they were benevolent toward those who did work, especially those whom they supervised or were otherwise associated. In smoking Kositzky’s Best Virginia, the label assured them, they consumed a product that was not only for gentlemen but developed by gentlemen whose laborers were contentand well treated.

  • How does the label reinforce English assumptions about class and race? What aspects of tobacco production are missing from the label? Why do you suppose that they are missing?

Chapter 3 tobacco label
(Chapter 3) 1639–1656Tobacco Label

Resistance to colonial authority bacon s rebellion va 1675 76
Resistance to colonial authority: Bacon’s Rebellion, VA 1675-76

  • In 1675 Indians numbered 4Th outnumbered by 40Th whites

  • VA Governor Berkeley & Lord Baltimore benefited by fur trade through friendly relations w/ Indians: Resentment from poor

  • VA & MD farmers formed militia to attack Doeg Indians but ended up killing 14 friendly Susquehannocks & their leaders at peace conference

  • Berkley ordered patrolling of forts, but Nathaniel Bacon & 1300 preferred war of extermination (less costly)

    • Massacred peaceful Indians, took lands, & enslaved them

    • Berkeley gave in but changed his mind so Bacon attacked governor & James town

      • But then Bacon died of dysentery & crowd dispersed

        Show society under deep stress; marginal taxpayers & desperate former servants, & wealthy outside of Berkeley’s inner circle

  • Racism played major role as whites’ willingness to massacre Indians no matter how loyal

Chesapeake slavery racial slavery developed in 3 stages
Chesapeake 1675-76Slavery: racial slavery developed in 3 stages

  • 1619-40 documents distinguish blacks and whites; not slave for life; same for Native

  • 1640-60: began to treat blacks & some Natives as slaves for life; children inherit slave status

    • this period show black & white running away together or marry

  • 1661 MD to enact laws for slavery for life;

  • VA followed in 1670

    • H. of Burgesses enacted laws making Africans & offspring lifelong slaves

    • this didn’t prevent blacks & whites joining in Bacon’s Rebellion

    • Fewer than a 1000 slaves lived in MD & VA

  • Strict legal slave codes designed to defuse poor whites’ resentment

    • Blacks unfit for freedom vs. new identity for poor whites

  • By 1700 slave population tripled = 22% of inhabitants

  • slavery replaced servants for economic reasons:

    • England’s population decreased as wage increased 50% = few came to colony

    • Royal African Co. ‘s monopoly on slave trade to W. Indies broken; more slaves sold directly to Chesapeake

  • From interior Africa: language & cultural barriers heightened racism among whites

  • Increased native-born whites increased racism due common racial identity

  • White colonists flourished as non-whites’ conditions deteriorated

Spread of Slavery 1675-761630-42: Caribbean 60% of 70Th English emigrated to Americas went to Caribbean (West Indies).

  • Caribbean also grew tobacco up to 1640s; then sugar plantation idea from Brazilian colonies of Dutch & Portugeuse

  • sugar required 3x as many workers; used indenture until 1640s

  • Barbados: imposed slave codes on blacks & natives in 1627; slavery as lifelong in ’36.

  • Blacks better as investment: toil until death: profit & racism reinforced each other

  • 1713 black pop. up from 40Th to 130Th; white stable at 33Th

  • Land scarce led islanders to mainland, particularly Carolina

Spread of slavery 1630 42 carolina
Spread of Slavery 1675-761630-42: Carolina

  • Charles II (Restoration) rewarded proprietors, who named lands after him (Carolus)

  • Anthony Ashley Cooper offered 50 acre for those who bring family, servant, or slave

    • Charleston started with 200 in 1670

    • Cooper & John Locke, his secretary, planned the settlement (3-tiered nobility)

    • SC: livestock, exported deerskins & Indian slaves

    • NC exported tobacco, lumber, pitch (thus ‘tarheels’)

  • rice made profit (20%): led to elite rival that of sugar planters in Caribbean

  • advantages to using blacks: malaria & yellow fever resistant, rice knowledge

  • 130 acre rice plantation needed 65 slaves; SC = 1st colony w/ black majority

    • black population from 17% to half by 1700

Spread of slavery carolina
Spread of Slavery: Carolina 1675-76

NC & SC separates 1712

Tuscarora War in NC 1711-1713

Hundreds Indians sold into slavery

Became 6th Nation of Iroquois

Yamasee War in SC

Indians dispersed

By 1720 all coastal Indians in southern colonies devastated

  • Carolinians’ attitude towards Indians: exploitative & violent

  • tens of thousands Natives sold to W. Indies, died due to lack of immunity to European diseases & tropical

  • 1739 SC slave revolt when 50 blacks along Stono River tried to march to Spanish Florida

    • Stopped by local militia

    • Note: NY slave revolt in 1712: 12 whites & 21 blacks dead, some burned over slow fire

  • between Chesapeake & NE existed non-English colonies: New Netherland & New Sweden = under English 1664

    • New Netherland = 1st N. Amer. multi-ethnic colony (1/2 Dutch, Fr, Gr., Scan, African free & slaves

    • 17 taverns but no place of worship; Catholics, protestants, Jews, Muslims

    • Dutch allied w/ Iroquois (had guns) & massacre other Indians = Kieft’s War = Indians reduced from 16,000 to 700

    • New Sweden in lower Delaware Valley traded fur w/ Delaware & Susquehannock; Dutch got annoyed & annexed it in 1655 w/out resistance from 400 residents

  • New Sweden: log cabin by Finnish settlers

The Mid Atlantic Colonies

Middle atlantic colonies ny nj
Middle Atlantic Colonies: NY, NJ Netherland & New Sweden = under English 1664

  • 1664 Charles II waged war against Dutch Republic, order annexation of N. Netherland & Gov. Stuyvesant gave in peacefully

  • Charles II made brother James (Duke of York, later James II) proprietor & renamed it New York

    • By 1700 only 44% pop originated from original N. Netherlanders

    • Landed elite = manor lords getting rent from tenants

  • N.J, carved out of N. Netherlands, awarded to proprietors W. Penn, J. L. Berkeley, P. Carteret

    • 4,000 Delaware & few hundreds Dutch & Swedes

    • sold to Quakers: split into West (’76) & East Jerseys (‘82

    • proprietors gave up in 1702 due conflicts among Quakers, Anglicans, Puritans, Scottish Presbyterians, Dutch Calvinists, & Swedish Lutherans

      • became royal province

The mid atlantic colonies pa
the Mid-Atlantic Colonies: PA Netherland & New Sweden = under English 1664

  • Originally settled by Quakers

  • Quakers: equality for men & women; non-violence; against military service; religious authority found in private soul, not Bible or church

  • Land paid to William Penn by king in 1681

    • His father was admiral in royal military

    • “The Holy Experiment”: religious freedom, prosperity, liberal ideas in gov’t

      • Lower Delaware River settled by Dutch & Swedes = separate colony called Delaware but Penn assigned governors

The mid atlantic region delaware
the Mid-Atlantic region: Delaware Netherland & New Sweden = under English 1664

  • 1702 Penn granted the lower 3 counties of Pennsylvania their own assembly

  • Thus Delaware was created, but same governor until American Revolution

  • Cities such as New York and Philadelphia, began to grow as seaports and commercial centers

Southern colonies md va nc sc ga
Southern Colonies: MD, VA, NC, SC, GA Netherland & New Sweden = under English 1664

  • English nobility received large land grants in eastern Virginia from the King of England.

  • Poor English immigrants as

    • small farmers or artisans (Shenandoah Valley or western Virginia)

    • indentured servants who agreed to work on tobacco plantations for a period of time to pay for passage to the New World.

Southern colonies the carolinas
Southern Colonies: The Carolinas Netherland & New Sweden = under English 1664

  • In 1729 N. and S. Carolinas became royal colonies

  • S. C.: colonist and planters from Barbados founded a town named Charlestown (for Charles II).

  • Used to trade fur and provided food for W. Indies, but in 18th c. became just like W. Indies growing rice by slaves

  • NC: MoRe like Va and New England: self-sufficient tobacco farms; no large plantation, less reliant on on slaves

Southern colonies georgia
Southern Colonies: Georgia Netherland & New Sweden = under English 1664

  • The last colony to get direct $ fr. London, chartered in 1732

  • Britain wanted buffer to protect S.C

  • To relieve overcrowded jails and prison ships

  • James Oglethrope governor of Savannah

  • Smallest and poorest of 13 due Spanish attacks

Social characteristics of southern colonies
Social characteristics of Southern Colonies Netherland & New Sweden = under English 1664

  • They had a social structure based on family status and the ownership of land.

  • Large landowners dominated colonial government and society and maintained an allegiance to the Church of England

  • They had closer social ties to England than in the other colonies.

Rivals for north america france
Rivals for North America: France Netherland & New Sweden = under English 1664

Fr lost Canada to Eng but resumed & extended colonies there

  • Seigneuries (tracts) to seigneurs who could import indenture servants or rent

  • Harsh winters limited numbers

  • French-Indian trade more lucrative than farming = Jesuits & Ursuline nuns converted Indians

  • Louis IV & adviser Jean-Baptiste Colbert = forceful about mercantilism

    • Revoked charter of the Co. of New France & made colony under royal rule & encourage Fr. Immigration to Canada

      • 2500 to 8500 in a decade

      • shipped female orphans (king’s girls) to marry settlers

      • 2/3 settlers returned home w/ tales of horror about winter, Iroquois & voyage 

  • France sent 1500 soldiers to sack 4 Mohawk villages (Iroquois); got peace & expanded

  • Louis Jolliet (trader) & Jacques Marquette (missionary) = 1st to upper Miss. River (Wisconsin)

  • Seur de la Salle descended entire river to Gulf of Mex & claimed Louisiana for Louis IV (as low as Mobile)

Rivals for north america spain
Rivals for North America: Spain 1750

  • forced Christianity on Peublos (Santa Fe, N.Mexcico)

  • landowners awarded encommiendas (required Indian labor)

  • Created wedge between Peublos & their trading partners (Apaches & Navajos)

    • Raided Peublos for corn

  • Peublos pop. from 80,000 to 17,000 due to drought & diseases (1598-1670s)

    • Peublos returned to old religion/ tradition & caused Spanish to destroy kivas & objects & to whip leaders publicly (example Gov. Juan Franciso Trevino)

    • Spanish cruelty turned Pope, El Saca, Luis Tupatu, Antonio Malacate against Catholicism

      • Aug. 10, 1680 Pope began Peublo revolt killed 68/70 Spanish settlers

      • Total Spanish dead 400; expelled Spanish for 12 yrs until Diego de Vargas came to reconcile but later used violence to impose Spanish rule

    • Indian resisted until 1700: ceased whipping & force conversion & encommiendas

      FL & TX

  • FL older than N. M.: resisted by Guale, Timucua, Apalachee

    • Franciscan missionaries imposed corporal punishment & labor

    • Native FL captured & sold by Indians allied to English in Carolina & Spanish weak

  • English & French expansion threatened Spain, which claimed TX (Tejas) 1691 but no settlement until 1716