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adolescence and erikson n.
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ADOLESCENCE AND ERIKSON

ADOLESCENCE AND ERIKSON

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ADOLESCENCE AND ERIKSON

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  1. ADOLESCENCE AND ERIKSON

  2. Adolescence • Primary Sex Characteristics • body structures that make sexual reproduction possible • Secondary Sex Characteristics • nonreproductive sexual characteristics • female- breast and hips • male- voice quality and body hair

  3. Height in centimeters 190 170 150 130 110 90 70 50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Age in years Boys Girls Adolescence • Throughout childhood, boys and girls are similar in height. At puberty, girls surge ahead briefly, but then boys overtake them at about age 14.

  4. Body Changes at Puberty

  5. 100% 80 60 40 20 0 Percent with positive, warm interaction with parents 2 to 4 5 to 8 9 to 11 Ages of child in years Adolescence- Social Development • The changing parent-child relationship

  6. Erikson’s Theory • Biological in belief that there are innate drives to develop social relationships and that these promote survival (Darwinism) • Drive to resolve conflict

  7. Stage 1 (birth - 1)Trust vs. Mistrust • Infants must rely on others for care • Consistent and dependable caregiving =sense of trust • Infants who are not well cared= mistrust

  8. Stage 2 (1-3 years) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt • Child that experiences independence will gain a sense of autonomy • Children that are overly restrained/ punished harshly will develop shame and doubt

  9. Stage 3 (3-5 years)Initiative vs. Guilt • Children are exposed to the wider social world and given greater responsibility • Sense of accomplishment leads to initiative, whereas feelings of guilt can emerge if the child is made to feel too anxious or irresponsible

  10. Stage 4 (5-12 years) Industry vs. Inferiority • Stage of life surrounding mastery of knowledge and intellectual skills • competence and achievement = industry • Feeling incompetent and unproductive =inferiority

  11. Stage 5 (adolescence)Identity vs. Confusion • Developing a sense of who one is and where s/he is going in life • Successful resolution =positive identity • Unsuccessful resolution =identity confusion

  12. Stage 6 (young adulthood)Intimacy vs. Isolation • Time for sharing oneself with another person • Capacity to hold commitments =intimacy • Failure to establish commitments = isolation

  13. Stage 7 (middle adulthood)Generativity vs. Stagnation • Caring for others in family, friends and work leads to sense of contribution to later generations • Stagnation comes from a sense of boredom and meaninglessness

  14. Proportion of normal (20/20) vision when identifying letters on an eye chart Adulthood- Physical Development • The Aging Senses 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 0 10 30 50 70 90 Age in years

  15. Percent correct when identifying spoken words Adulthood- Physical Development • The Aging Senses 90 70 50 10 30 50 70 90 Age in years

  16. Fatal accidents per 100 million miles Fatal accidents per 10,000 drivers Adulthood- Physical Development • Slowing reactions contribute to increased accident risks among those 75 and older Fatal accident rate 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 and over Age

  17. Adulthood- Social Changes • Multinational surveys show that age differences in life satisfaction are trivial (Inglehart, 1990) Percentage “satisfied” with life as a whole 80 60 40 20 0 15 25 35 45 55 65+ Age group

  18. Emotional instability 24% 16 8 0 No early 40s emotional crisis Females Males 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 Age in Years Adulthood- Social Development • Early-forties midlife crisis?

  19. Adulthood- Social Changes • Social Clock • the culturally preferred timing of social events • marriage • parenthood • retirement

  20. Adulthood- Cognitive Development • Crystallized Intelligence • one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills • tends to increase with age • Fluid Intelligence • ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly • tends to decrease during late adulthood

  21. Stage 8 (late adulthood to death)Integrity vs. Despair • Successful resolutions =integrity and the ability to see broad truths and advise those in earlier stages • Despair arises from feelings of helplessness and the bitter sense that life has been incomplete

  22. Bronfenbrenner’s Social Ecology Theory • Network of interactions and interdependencies among people, institutions and cultural context