Latin American Revolutions • What was the “Grito de Delores”? • Who was Father Miguel Hidalgo? • How did the Age of Enlightenment change traditional ways of thinking? • What role did the “precursors” of the revolutions, such as Francisco de Miranda, play in encouraging new ways of thinking? • How did Spain change its policy regarding the hiring of government officials in the colonies? • How did Creoles and Peninsulares feel about each other?
What issues of trade and commerce aggravated many Creole businessmen? • How did the Spanish colonies of Latin America view their place within the Empire? • How did Napoleon’s invasion of Spain and Portugal play out? • Where did the Portuguese royal family move to? • Whom did Napoleon place on the throne of Spain? • What was a junta? • How did the colonial juntas respond to the juntas in Spain?
In what way was the Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula the straw that broke the colonial back? • Why did the Hidalgo revolt receive little support from the Creoles of New Spain? • What policies was Hidalgo looking to change in his attempted revolution? • What was Bolivar’s appraisal of Latin America according to his “Jamaica Letter” of 1815? • What did the Creoles of Venezuela declare on July 5, 1811? • Was that declaration welcomed by everyone in Venezuela?
Who was Simon Bolivar? • How did his experiences in Europe shape his political beliefs and ambitions? • Whom did Bolivar convince to lead the first attempt at establishing Venezuelan independence? • What role did an earthquake play in bringing about an end to the First Republic in Venezuela? • How did Bolivar react to news that Miranda was secretly negotiating a surrender with Royalist forces? • What happened to the First Republic of Venezuela?
What happened in Buenos Aires on July 27, 1806? • What was the purpose of the English invasion? • How did the viceroy and peninsulares respond? • How did the local Creoles respond? • What did the British do after being driven out of Buenos Aires? • How did the occupation of Montevideo turn out for the British? • Why did the Creoles not welcome the British?
What did the locals do with the Spanish viceroy of the La Plata region? • What is a cabildoabierto? • What sort of reforms did the new junta of Buenos Aires bring in? • What were portenos? • Why was there a split between many of the portenos and their compatriots who lived farther inland? • Describe the socio-economic structure of Bolivia. • How had the Tupac Amaru II uprising in the late 1700s affected the Creole elite in Bolivia?
How did the first attempt at revolution in Bolivia make out in 1809? Why? • From where was the idea of revolution introduced to Bolivia? How? • In 1810 Buenos Aires sent an army into Bolivia to bring freedom. How did the expedition go? • Why did many of the Bolivian Creoles not welcome the liberating army from Buenos Aires? • How did the second expedition, launched in 1813, turn out? • How did the third expedition, in 1815, end up?
Who were the montoneros? • Why were Lima and Buenos Aires so determined to take control of Bolivia (Upper Peru)? • Why did the local Creole elite tend to side with Lima? • What were the obstacles Buenos Aires faced in trying to subdue Bolivia? • What were some of the advantages and disadvantages to independence minded Montevideans as a result of the city’s location?
Who was Jose Artigas? • What is a caudillo? • What was the “Grito de Asuncion”, issued in February 1811? • How did the Spanish viceroy in Montevideo handle the dual attack from Uruguayan and Argentine patriots? • How did the Argentines respond to Brazil’s incursion into the Rio de la Plata region? • Why is Artigas’ retreat from Montevideo into the hinterland considered a significant moment in Uruguayan history? • What happened in 1817 after Artigas has taken control of Montevideo?
How long would it be until Uruguay became an independent country? • Why did it take so long? • What was Paraguay’s social and economic state as of 1810? • How did the Paraguayans react to Spain’s attempt to speak for all the colonies? • How did Buenos Aires react to Paraguay’s refusal to go along with its junta? • How did the military campaign go for the Argentines? • What did Paraguay do on May 17, 1811?
Did Paraguay develop into a democracy right away? • What did Jose Francia declare himself to be in 1815? • Why do you think it was relatively easy for Paraguay to reach independence? • Why would many Chilean Creoles already consider themselves to be Chilean by the time Napoleon invaded Spain? • How did the Creoles of Chile outmaneuver the viceroy? • What did the cabildoabierto of September 10, 1810 decide?
What steps did the junta take that were clear indicators of a desire for independence? • What did Jose Carrera do in July of 1811? Why? • What reforms did Carrera institute while in power? • Was everyone happy with Carrera’s style of leadership? Why not? • Who was Bernardo O’Higgins? • Where did the most serious opposition to Chilean independence come from? • Where did O’Higgins and many of the survivors of the Battle of Rancagua flee? • What were the following years like for the patriotic Creoles of Chile?
How did the journey to independence begin for the people of Ecuador? • Why did they not achieve independence until Bolivar’s armies marched south from Colombia in 1822? • Why did the juntas of Colombia ultimately fail? • Why did Bolivar leave Colombia for Jamaica? • Why did most of the Creoles of Peru not take up the cause of Independence? • What impact did the native rebellion led by Mateo Pumacahua have on the Creoles? • What role did the Viceroy of Peru, Jose Fernando de Abascal play in the counter-revolutionary movement?
What was happening in Spain while the colonies were considering independence? • What was the Cortes convened in Spain and what sort of decisions did it make? • Were Creole representatives from the Americas permitted to attend? • How did the Creoles who went feel about their treatment? • Why was the liberal constitution of 1812 short lived? • Why was Ferdinand VII able to reassert royal control over the colonies?
Who was Jose Maria Morelos? • What did he declare in 1810? • Why was popular with the lower classes in Mexico? • What did he mean when he declared that “all the inhabitants except Europeans…will be known as Americans”? • What types of reforms did he support? • Why did the Creoles of Mexico not support him? • What happened to Morelos on December 22, 1815? • To where did Bolivar flee after the defeat of the First Republic in Venezuela? • What did Bolivar call for in the Cartegena Manifesto?
What would have caused Bolivar to come to the conclusion that unity was the key to winning independence? • What moment of glory did Bolivar experience in 1813? • Why didn’t it last? • Who were the llaneros? • Why did many blacks, and pardos not support the revolutionary cause? • When did the second Venezuelan republic come to an end? • What was the state of Spanish America by the end of 1816?
What was Great Britain’s attitude toward the rebellious colonies of Spanish America? • How did this somewhat contradict their policy towards Spain? • What was the level of US involvement in Latin America? • Why did they take a position of neutrality? • Why did Haiti support Bolivar’s cause? • When did Bolivar return to Venezuela? • What type of government did Bolivar propose in his Jamaica letter? • Why did he feel the need for a strong executive?
Which part of Venezuela did Bolivar make his “home base”? • Why did the llanos prove to be an excellent region in which to operate? • Who was Joes Antonio Paez? • How did Bolivar change the direction of the war in 1819? • Was his attack into Colombia successful? • Why is the Battle of Boyaca on August 7, 1819 important? • What role did British soldiers play in the battles in Venezuela and Colombia?
In what shape had Bolivar’s push toward Caracas left him and his army? • What was Britain’s position on the recruitment of British citizens to serve in Bolivar’s army? • How did being named president of Venezuela help Bolivar’s cause? Did it make much of a difference in actuality? • Why did Bolivar decide to attack in New Granada (Colombia)?
What evidence is there of a rivalry between Bolivar and Paez? • What was the journey through the floodplains and into the mountains like for the Army of the West? • What was the state of the army as it came out of the mountains? • How did it survive? • Why did opposing forces not crush Bolivar’s army as it came through the mountains?
What was the order of battle at Boyaca Bridge. August 7th, 1819? • How did the Viceroy and other Spanish officials in Bogota react to the news of the victory at Boyaca? • Provide evidence of just how important the victory was to the overall course of independence in Spanish America. • Why was Bolivar upset with Santander’s decision to execute Royalist prisoners in Bogota? • What events in Spain helped Bolivar’s campaign in Venezuela in 1820? • Why is the Battle of Carabobo, on June 24, 1821, important? • How did Bolivar feel about the Paez and the Llaneros? How did he handle them?
What was Gran Colombia and who was named as it’s president? • What sort of constitution did the new state possess? • Who was General Antonio José de Sucre? • What did Bolivar think of him? • What role did he play in the liberation of Ecuador and Peru? • What happened on the slopes of Pichincha on May 24, 1822? • Who finally met in the city of Guayaquil in July of 1822? • What had San Martin accomplished by late 1816?
What was San Martin’s strategic vision, or what did he plan to do with his new army? • What was the political situation in Buenos Aires by 1816? • What happened at Tucumán in 1816? • What did the constitution of the newly independent Argentina call for? • Why did some of the provinces revolt against it? • What evidence is there that San Martin was a modest man, not overly interested in fighting for personal gain? • How would you describe San Martin’s preparations for his invasion of Chile? • What challenges did San Martin had to consider while planning his crossing of the Andes? • How did he plan to overcome them?
What role did the Lautaro Lodge play in supplying San Martin’s army while maintaining secrecy? • From where were the soldiers who made up the Army of the Andes? • How did San Martin handle the issue of including former slaves in the army? • How did San Martin manage to surprise the royalist forces in Chile? • What toll did the passage of the Andes take on the men and animals of the army? • Why did San Martin order his army, lacking artillery, to attack the royalist forces at Chacabuco? • What role did O’Higgins play in the battle? Did the Argentines appreciate his efforts?
Was the victory at Chacabuco decisive? • What did it allow the Army of the Andes to do? • Why did San Martin want O’Higgins to head up the new Chilean government? • Would it be fair to say that in his success San Martin had risen above the politics of Buenos Aires? • Why did San Martin want to cultivate a special relationship with Britain? • What was San Martin’s opinion of the creole elite in Chile? • How important was the patriot victory on the plains of Maipu on April 5th, 1818? • What was his strategic plan for Chile and Peru?
What was San Martin’s act of “historic disobedience?” • How did he end up having to make such a decision? • From where did San Martin get the ships to build his new navy? • Who was Thomas Cochrane? • What sort of commander was he? • When did San Martin head for Peru? • How did he get there?
Why did San Martin’s strategy to take Peru hinge on the patriot’s ability to win the support of the Peruvian people, particularly the Creole elite? • What sort of government did San Martin want for Peru? • Did San Martin’s declaration of Peruvian independence on July 28, 1820, after occupying Lima reflect the true state of affairs in Peru? • What sorts of problems did San Martin face as he planned his attack on the highlands?
What was the nature of the discussion between Bolivar and San Martin at Guayaquil in July1822? • Why did San Martin leave the meeting and head into exile in Europe? • What did Spanish liberals force Ferdinand VII to do in 1820? • What new measures did the Cortes bring in? • Why would Creoles in Mexico not like these developments? • Who was Agustin de Iturbide? • What did he intend to do?
What was Iturbide supposed to do when he led his army into the field in late 1820? What did he actually do? • Who was Vicente Guerrero? • Why did the two join forces? • What was the “Plan of Iguala”? • What were the three guarantees that the plan presented to the people of Mexico? • What is important about September 28, 1821? • Whom did they recruit to be the emperor of the new Mexican empire?
How did Iturbide do as Emperor Augustin I? • Who became the first president of Mexico in 1824? • Was there any significant movement for independence in the colonies of Central America? • How did they break away from Spain? • In July of 1823 the United Provinces of Central America was born. Which nations were part of it? • When did Bolivar travel to Peru and why? • What title did the Peruvian congress give to Bolivar?
Why did Bolivar refer to Peru as a “chamber of horrors”? • By August 6, 1824 what was the background and quality of Bolivar’s army? • Why was the battle of Junin important? • What happened on December 8, 1824 at the Battle of Ayacucho? • What role did Sucre play in bringing out the final defeat of royalist forces in Upper Peru? • On August 6, 1824 Bolivia officially declared independence. What sort of constitution did Bolivar create for the new country?
Why was the constitution considered to be poorly designed? • How had King Joao transformed Brazil’s status with relation to Portugal? • How did Brazil benefit from serving as a royal capital? • Why did King Joao finally return to Portugal? • Whom did he leave behind to run things in Brazil? • Why did many Brazilians resent the presence of the Portuguese who arrived with the king? • What did the Portuguese Cortes do in 1821 that most Brazilian Creoles just could not accept? • What had the king advised Prince Pedro to do if things got ugly in Brazil?
What did Pedro declare in his Grito de Ipiranga in September of 1822? • Was there a prolonged and bloody fight for Brazilian independence? • Was it smooth sailing for Pedro in the new Empire of Brazil? • Did people appreciate his insistence on a conservative constitution? • What was the benefit of Pedro’s presence in Brazil?