Latin American Revolutions • What was the “Grito de Delores”? • Who was Father Miguel Hidalgo? • How did the Age of Enlightenment change traditional ways of thinking? • What role did the “precursors” of the revolutions, such as Francisco de Miranda, play in encouraging new ways of thinking? • How did Spain change its policy regarding the hiring of government officials in the colonies? • How did Creoles and Peninsulares feel about each other?
What issues of trade and commerce aggravated many Creole businessmen? • How did the Spanish colonies of Latin America view their place within the Empire? • How did Napoleon’s invasion of Spain and Portugal play out? • Where did the Portuguese royal family move to? • Whom did Napoleon place on the throne of Spain? • What was a junta? • How did the colonial juntas respond to the juntas in Spain?
In what way was the Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula the straw broke the colonial back? • Why did the Hidalgo revolt receive little support from the Creoles of New Spain? • What policies was Hidalgo looking to change in his attempted revolution? • What was Bolivar’s appraisal of Latin America according to his “Jamaica Letter” of 1815? • What did the Creoles of Venezuela declare on July 5, 1811? • Was that declaration welcomed by everyone in Venezuela?
Who was Simon Bolivar? • How did his experiences in Europe shape his political beliefs and ambitions? • Whom did Bolivar convince to lead the first attempt at establishing Venezuelan independence? • What role did an earthquake play in bringing about an end to the First Republic in Venezuela? • How did Bolivar react to news that Miranda was secretly negotiating a surrender with Royalist forces?
What happened in Buenos Aires on July 27, 1806? • What was the purpose of the English invasion? • How did the viceroy and peninsulares respond? • How did the local Creoles respond? • What did the British do after being driven out of Buenos Aires? • How did the occupation of Montevideo turn out for the British? • Why did the Creoles not welcome the British?
What did the locals do with the Spanish viceroy of the La Plata region? • What is a cabildoabierto? • What sort of reforms did the new junta of Buenos Aires bring in? • What were portenos? • Why was there a split between many of the portenos and their compatriots who lived farther inland? • Describe the socio-economic structure of Bolivia. • How had the Tupac Amaru II uprising in the late 1700s affected the Creole elite in Bolivia?
From where was the idea of revolution introduced to Bolivia? How? • In 1810 Buenos Aires sent an army into Bolivia to bring freedom. How did the expedition go? • Why did many of the Bolivian Creoles not welcome the liberating army from Buenos Aires? • How did the second expedition, launched in 1813, turn out? • How did the third expedition, in 1815, end up?
Who were the montoneros? • Why were Lima and Buenos Aires so determined to take control of Bolivia (Upper Peru)? • Why did the local Creole elite tend to side with Lima? • What were the obstacles Buenos Aires faced in trying to subdue Bolivia? • What were some of the advantages and disadvantages to independence minded Montevideans as a result of the city’s location?
Who was Jose Artigas? • What is a caudillo? • What was the “Grito de Asuncion”, issued in February 1811? • How did the Spanish viceroy in Montevideo handle the dual attack from Uruguayan and Argentine patriots? • How did the Argentines respond to Brazil’s incursion into the Rio de la Plata region? • Why is Artigas’ retreat from Montevideo into the hinterland considered a significant moment in Uruguayan history? • What happened in 1817 after Artigas has taken control of Montevideo?
How long would it be until Uruguay became an independent country? • Why did it take so long? • What was Paraguay’s social and economic state as of 1810? • How did the Paraguayans react to Spain’s attempt to speak for all the colonies? • How did Buenos Aires react to Paraguay’s refusal to go along with its junta? • How did the military campaign go for the Argentines? • What did Paraguay do on May 17, 1811?
Did Paraguay develop into a democracy right away? • What did Jose Francia declare himself to be in 1815? • Why do you think it was relatively easy for Paraguay to reach independence? • Why would many Chilean Creoles already consider themselves to be Chilean by the time Napoleon invaded Spain? • How did the Creoles of Chile outmaneuver the viceroy? • What did the cabildoabierto of September 10, 1810 decide?
What steps did the junta take that were clear indicators of a desire for independence? • What did Jose Carrera do in July of 1811? Why? • What reforms did Carrera institute while in power? • Was everyone happy with Carrera’s style of leadership? Why not? • Who was Bernardo O’Higgins? • Where did the most serious opposition to Chilean independence come from? • Where did O’Higgins and many of the survivors of the Battle of Rancagua flee? • What were the following years like for the patriotic Creoles of Chile?
How did the journey to independence begin for the people of Ecuador? • Why did they not achieve independence until Bolivar’s armies marched south from Colombia in 1822? • Why did the juntas of Colombia ultimately fail? • Why did most of the Creoles of Peru not take up the cause of Independence? • What impact did the native rebellion led by Mateo Pumacahua have on the Creoles? • What role did the Viceroy of Peru, Jose Fernando de Abascal play in the counter-revolutionary movement?
What was happening in Spain while the colonies were considering independence? • What was the Cortes convened in Spain and what sort of decisions did it make? • Were Creole representatives from the Americas permitted to attend? • How did the Creoles who went feel about their treatment? • Why was the liberal constitution of 1812 short lived? • Why was Ferdinand VII able to reassert royal control over the colonies?
Who was Jose Maria Morelos? • What did he declare in 1810? • Why was popular with the lower classes in Mexico? • Why did the Creoles of Mexico not support him? • What happened to Morelos on December 22, 1815? • To where did Bolivar flee after the defeat of the First Republic in Venezuela? • What did Bolivar call for in the Cartegena Manifesto?
What would have caused Bolivar to come to the conclusion that unity was the key to winning independence? • What moment of glory did Bolivar experience in 1813? • Why didn’t it last? • Who were the llaneros? • When did the second Venezuelan republic come to an end? • What was the state of Spanish America by the end of 1816?