Latin american revolutions
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LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS. The Spaniards attack the Aztecs. The Spaniards capture the Inca King. SOCIAL HIERARCHY. Peninsulares: Native Spaniards. Creoles: People of pure European blood But born in the New World. Mulattos: African + European blood. Mestizos: Indian + European

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Latin american revolutions

The Spaniards attack the Aztecs

The Spaniards capture the Inca King

Social hierarchy


Native Spaniards


People of pure

European blood

But born in the

New World


African +

European blood


Indian +



Indians and Africans






I & A

Modern map of haiti
Modern Map of Haiti

Situation by 1789
Situation by 1789

  • Events in Europe would shape the history of America

  • The French Revolution began in 1789 & overthrown the monarchy by 1793.

Haitians were inspired by the French Declaration of the Rights of Man, and hoped they too would gain freedom. Blacks were especially hopeful.

Haitian revolution 1791 1804
Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804

  • Haiti is the “jewel” of the French Empire due to its coffee & sugar production; coffee produced by slave labor

  • Pre-rev. Haiti had a distinct, stratified social hierarchy

  • What is unique about Haiti’s revolution is that it was a massive slave revolt, & slaves ran the country after they won

  • Extreme brutality between white French & slaves, thousands massacred during war

Toussaint louverture
Toussaint Louverture

“I was born a slave, but nature gave me the soul

of a free man.”

  • Born a slave, but educated early in life

  • Freed around 1776

  • “George Washington” of Haiti

  • Owned a small plantation with slaves by 1791

  • Devout Catholic

  • Extremely able general who turned “common”slaves into effective fighting force

  • Named himself governor for life in 1801, proclaimed Catholicism as official religion of Haiti


  • 1st Independent Nation in L. America

  • 1st post-colonial black-led nation in the world

  • 1st successful slave rebellion

  • Economy in ruins

  • Class structure (though different, less strict) still in place

The bolivian revolutions

The "Bolivian" Revolutions

Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia: All freed by Simon Bolivar

Simon bolivar
Simon Bolivar

Born in Caracas to wealthy family

Friend & mentor Don Simon taught Bolivar about the Enlightenment, liberty, & freedom

Entered military academy in Panama at age of 14

Greatly admired American & French Revolutions, and George Washington & Thomas Jefferson

Very anti-slavery, but nervous about mixed-race people

Did not believe U.S.-style government would work well in Latin America

No children, only wife died of yellow fever

The napoleonic wars again
The Napoleonic Wars (again!)

Spanish Americans formed juntas to rule in the absence of the “true” king

Junta: Spanish word meaning council

The juntas led to confusion and struggles for power between competing juntas

Royalists and liberals fought for control of the juntas

By 1815 (end of P. War), Spanish America divided between royalists and pro-independence forces

The Mask of Ferdinand: did Spanish Americans invoke Ferdinand VII’s name only to achieve their goals?

Bolivar s military campaigns
Bolivar’s Military Campaigns

Bolivar returns to Venezuela in 1807, given a command by the junta in 1813

As the Peninsular War drew to a close, Spain began focusing on their American empire again

Bolivar fought against royalists and forces that did not recognize authority of the United Provinces

Latin american revolutions

After political & military disputes in 1815, Bolivar fled to Jamaica & Haiti

Returned in 1816, defeated royalists and proclaimed independence of Gran Columbia on Sept 7, 1821

Gran Columbia = modern day Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, & northern Peru

Bolivar named 1st president of Gran Columbia

Battle of Ayacucho in 1824: Bolivar’s forces captured last Spanish viceroy; considered the end of the Spanish American wars of independence

Aftermath Jamaica & Haiti

Bolivar dreamed of uniting South America into one nation (like the United States)

This never happened due to competing interests among the new states

Not wanting Gran Columbia to start breaking apart, Bolivar took measures to strengthen central power; named lifetime president then dictator in 1828

Bolivar’s moves angered liberals, who tried to assassinate the leader in the same year

Slightly disillusioned, Bolivar resigned in April 1830 to move to Europe; died in September before he could set sail