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Enlightenment and Revolution 1550-1789. Chapter 6. The Scientific Revolution. Section 1. Learning Targets. I can define the scientific revolution I can explain how the scientific revolution changed the way people looked at the world. A Little Background…. Before the Enlightenment:

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Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

Enlightenment and Revolution1550-1789

Chapter 6

Learning targets
Learning Targets

  • I can define the scientific revolution

  • I can explain how the scientific revolution changed the way people looked at the world

A little background
A Little Background…

  • Before the Enlightenment:

    • People were educated through their church

    • Most people couldn’t read

      • How did they know what was true?

  • After the Enlightenment:

    • People used science to learn

    • Began to read on their own!

    • Became more independent and free

The roots of modern science
The Roots of Modern Science

  • The Medieval View:

    • Geocentric Theory

      • “Earth-centered” theory of the universe

      • Everything revolved around the earth

      • Christianity had taught this for centuries

The roots of modern science1
The Roots of Modern Science

  • A New Way of Thinking:

    • The Scientific Revolution

      • Some people began writing down new ideas and sharing them in books (like the internet today)

      • They questioned what was taught in the past

      • As Europeans explored, they used new technology

        • Many were inspired by this to discover even more

A revolutionary model of the universe
A Revolutionary Model of the Universe

  • The Heliocentric Theory

    • “Sun-Centered” Theory

    • Nicolaus Copernicus created this in the early 1500s

      • He feared persecution by the Church for challenging their “geocentric” theory

      • Didn’t publish his findings until he was on his deathbed!

A revolutionary model of the universe1
A Revolutionary Model of the Universe

  • Galileo’s Discoveries:

    • Took early version of telescope and improved it in 1609

    • Used it to write a book, Starry Messenger, to describe his discoveries

      • Moon had rough surface

      • Sun had spots (used sunglasses)

      • Jupiter had four moons

A revolutionary model of the universe2
A Revolutionary Model of the Universe

  • Conflict With the Church:

    • Like Copernicus, his ideas challenged church authority

    • He was summoned by the Pope, to apologize and deny his discoveries

      • He did

      • Lived under house arrest the rest of his life!

    • The church admitted Galileo was right in 1992

The scientific method
The Scientific Method

  • These scientists developed a common routine for discovering new ideas

    • Observe something

    • Identify a problem, and guess a solution

    • Then test your solution

    • Evaluate the results and retest if necessary

The scientific method1
The Scientific Method

  • Bacon and Descartes:

    • Frances Bacon encouraged more experimentation to prove new ideas

      • He wrote publicly about this, and attacked anyone who disagreed

    • Rene Descartes wanted to use Math and Logic to prove new ideas

      • “I think, therefore I am.”

      • Anything is uncertain until logic proved it true.

Newton explains law of gravity
Newton Explains Law of Gravity

  • Isaac Newton:

    • Brought all recent discoveries into a new theory

    • Universal Law of Gravitation

      • Every object in the universe attracts every other object

      • Strength of attraction depends on mass and distance

The scientific revolution spreads
The Scientific Revolution Spreads

  • Scientific Instruments:

    • The Microscope

      • Now able to look at bacteria

      • Red Blood Cells

    • The Thermometer

      • 1714, Gabriel Fahrenheit develops his own thermometer

      • 1742, Anders Celsius creates his own thermometer too

The scientific revolution spreads1
The Scientific Revolution Spreads

  • Medicine and the Human Body

    • Doctors used to accept the writings of someone who had never dissected a body!

      • Had assumed human anatomy was same as pigs

      • Soon, scientists started to dissect real human bodies to improve medicine

    • Smallpox

      • Late 1700’s, Edward Jenner created a smallpox vaccine using a weaker version from cows

The scientific revolution spreads2
The Scientific Revolution Spreads

  • Discoveries in Chemistry:

    • Robert Boyle

      • Father of modern chemistry

      • Explained relationship of volume, temperature, and pressure

        • Think of water boiling

Learning targets1
Learning Targets

  • I can summarize how Enlightenment ideas are found in the U.S. government

Sum it up activity
“Sum it up!” Activity

  • Go to Chapter 6 Sec 2

  • Put your name and date at the top

    • 9/3/10

  • Put the title of the Section

  • Read the Section

    • As you read, write down the main ideas

  • Using main ideas, summarize at bottom in 20 words or less!

Learning targets2
Learning Targets

I can summarize Enlightenment ideas that are found in the U.S. government.

A little background1
A Little Background…

  • The Enlightenment

    • An age of reason

    • Influenced by Scientific Revolution

    • Stressed ability of individuals to solve problems

    • Influenced western countries (like the U.S.)

Two views on government
Two Views on Government

  • Hobbes Social Contract:

    • Thomas Hobbes fought in English Civil War

      • It was horrible and bloody

      • He lost faith in human beings

    • Hobbes’ doesn’t trust most humans

      • Believes they needed a strong leader

      • Needed to surrender their rights for order

      • Called this a Social Contract

Two views on government1
Two Views on Government

  • Locke’s Natural Rights:

    • Opposite of Hobbes

    • John Locke trusted people

    • Believed people would make good choices over time

    • Argued Self-Rule

      • Ideas of Life, Liberty, and Property

    • Strong supporter of Democracy

The philosophes advocate reason
The Philosophes Advocate Reason

  • French Philosophers Believed in 5 Things:

    • Reason

    • Nature

    • Happiness

    • Progress

    • Liberty

The philosophes advocate reason1
The Philosophes Advocate Reason

  • Voltaire Combats Intolerance:

    • Challenged authority of powerful leaders

    • Strong supporter of Free Speech:

      • “I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.”

The philosophes advocate reason2
The Philosophes Advocate Reason

  • Montesquieu and the Separation of Powers:

    • Baron de Montesquieu (mon-tah-skew) admired the British system of government

    • Supported idea of separation of powers in a government

      • Influenced 3 Branches in U.S. Constitution

      • Executive, Legislative, and Judicial

The philosophes advocate reason3
The Philosophes Advocate Reason

  • Rousseau: Champion of Freedom:

    • Jean Jacques Rousseau

    • Strong supporter of Direct Democracy

      • Citizens vote directly on EVERYTHING

    • Believed people worked together to create a government of laws

      • People surrendered some freedoms, but not as many as Hobbes had suggested

The philosophes advocate reason4
The Philosophes Advocate Reason

  • Beccaria Promotes Criminal Justice:

    • Cesare Beccaria (Bayk-uh-ree-ah)

    • Believed in fair legal system

    • Laws should be enforced for everyone

    • No cruel or unusual punishment

    • Punishment = seriousness of crime

      • No capital punishment though

Women and the enlightenment
Women and the Enlightenment

  • Most women did not benefit from the Enlightenment

  • Some influenced change:

    • Mary Wollstonecraft

      • Argued that women needed equal education as men

      • Influenced many women entering field of medicine and politics

Legacy of the enlightenment
Legacy of the Enlightenment

  • Belief in Progress:

    • New discoveries encouraged new ideas

    • Galileo and Newton opened the door for new discoveries in science

    • People also believed that social problems could be solved in much the same way

Legacy of the enlightenment1
Legacy of the Enlightenment

  • A More Secular Outlook:

    • Secular (Worldly, or Non-Religious)

    • New discoveries challenged teachings and authority of church

    • Some questioned God’s existence

    • Scientists like Newton were very religious

      • Hoped to reveal God’s power through his discoveries

Legacy of the enlightenment2
Legacy of the Enlightenment

  • Importance of the Individual:

    • As people turned away from authority, they turned to themselves

    • Governments should represent these individuals

      • Representative Democracy

    • Economic Progress:

      • People acting on own self-interest would create economic progress

Enlightenment chart
Enlightenment Chart

  • On a blank piece of paper…

    • Fold in half vertically

    • On one side list Enlightenment Thinkers

    • On the right side, describe their impact on our government today

Learning targets3
Learning Targets

  • I can identify and locate on a map, the European nations where the Enlightenment expanded to.

  • I can explain the causes of the Enlightenment.

Key idea section 3
Key Idea (section 3):

Enlightenment ideas spread through the Western World, and influenced the arts, economies, and governments.

Paris enjoys the enlightenment
Paris Enjoys the Enlightenment

Paris, France:

Became cultural center of Europe

People from Europe and the Americas came to Paris to hear these new ideas

Writers and Artists gathered in wealthy homes to discuss new ideas

Called salons.

Enlightenment creates the encyclopedia
Enlightenment creates the Encyclopedia

Marie-Therese Geoffrin

Hosts “salon” discussions

Funds the research for the creation of the Encyclopedia

Enlightenment creates the encyclopedia1
Enlightenment creates the Encyclopedia

Denis Diderot

Uses her money to write down all the information / knowledge he can into a set of books called The Encyclopedia.

Enlightenment creates the encyclopedia2
Enlightenment creates the Encyclopedia

Challenges to the Encyclopedia

The Catholic Church banned it

The French Government did too

These bans were later lifted, and the Encyclopedia helped to spread Enlightenment ideas

Social classes
Social Classes

The Middle Class:

They were already becoming wealthier

But did not enjoy the privileges of the nobles

Nor did they have much political power

Ideas of equality sounded great to them

Art grows too
Art Grows Too


Showed more balance and elegance

More simplicity


“Classical” music started to emerge

It was lighter and more elegant


The “novel” was born

Longer stories with many twists and character descriptions

Enlightenment and monarchy
Enlightenment and Monarchy

The best form of government:

Many enlightenment thinkers believed that a monarchy was the best government

Only as long as the monarch respected the rights of the people

The enlightenment thinkers tried to influence the monarchs to rule fairly

Let s review
Let’s Review…

  • Get out a blank piece of paper

  • Write every letter of the Alphabet A-Z

  • Try to come up with a word from the notes for each letter!

  • Then write a 3-4 sentence summary on the back

The enlightened despots
The Enlightened Despots


Absolute ruler

There were 3 Enlightened Despots:

Frederick the Great of Prussia

Joseph II of the Roman Empire

Catherine the Great of Russia

Frederick the great
Frederick the Great


Called himself a servant of Prussia

Religious Freedom, free speech, better education

Got rid of torture

Like Beccaria

Joseph ii
Joseph II

Holy Roman Emperor

Free Speech

Freedom of Worship

Protestants and Jews

They undid his changes after he died!

Catherine the great
Catherine the Great


Absolute Ruler

Followed ideas of Beccaria and Montesquieu

Started to make changes for the better through commissions

Never got it done though!

What we learned today
What We Learned Today

The Enlightenment started to spread especially through Paris, France

Talked about ideas in “salons”

New ideas put together in Encyclopedia

Middle Class grew wealthier, but didn’t have more power

Art became simpler and more interesting

Leaders became more “enlightened”

Learning targets4
Learning Targets

I can explain the causes of the American Revolution.

I can describe the Enlightenment ideas that are found in the American Revolution.

Some background
Some Background

  • During the 1700’s, the British had 13 American colonies

    • They were growing in population and wealth

    • Slowly becoming different from the “motherland” of Great Britain

    • British continued to pass laws that governed or limited the colonists’ rights

    • This included forcing the colonists to trade only with the British

Taxation without representation
Taxation Without Representation!

  • The British still had to pay for the high cost of the French and Indian War (1757-1763).

    • So Parliament decided to have the colonists pay for it with taxes

    • The colonists had never had to pay taxes directly to the British Government before

    • British figured the colonists should have to pay for their protection and inclusion into the empire

Taxation without representation1
Taxation Without Representation!

  • British tax the colonists:

    • Colonists boycott (refuse to buy) British goods to avoid tax (1765)

    • Very effective, forces British to repeal tax

Declaring independence
Declaring Independence

  • The British soon imposed new taxes

  • The American Colonists continued to protest these

  • Tensions increased

    • The British sent in more troops

  • The Colonists would resist these things:

    • The Boston Tea Party

    • The Boston Massacre

Declaring independence1
Declaring Independence

  • Lexington and Concord (1765)

    • British try to seize colonists’ weapons

    • Colony militias fight back in these towns starting the American Revolution

  • Representatives of the Colonists meet to decide the next step

    • In July 1776, they write the Declaration of Independence (Thomas Jefferson)

      • Based on ideas of Enlightenment

The american revolution1
The American Revolution

  • From 1775 to 1781 the American colonists and the British fought

  • Despite the British being stronger they lost:

    • The British people had grown tired of the conflict

    • The French military came to the aid of the Americans

    • The British willingly agreed to a peace agreement

      • The British recognized the independence and sovereignty of the United States

    • The Americans had more to fight for! Freedom.

The united states
The United States

  • The 13 states (former colonies) formed a new government:

    • Called the Articles of Confederation

    • Very weak; couldn’t tax or raise enough money

    • States had a lot of power

    • Central Government had very little power

    • States even had their own currencies!

  • In 1787, the states met to form a new type of government that is more united

    • The Constitution

Influences on the constitution
Influences on the Constitution

  • Montesquieu:

    • 3 Branches of Government, Separation of Powers

  • Locke:

    • Life, Liberty, Property, and the pursuit of happiness

  • Voltaire:

    • Free speech and religion

  • Beccaria:

    • A fair system of justice

The enlightenment in the u s
The Enlightenment in the U.S.

  • Get a U.S. History Book (BLUE)

    • Declaration of Independence (page 54)

    • Constitution (page 84)

    • Bill of Rights (page 96)

      • 1st 10 Amendments