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Emotional Development & Temperament. Modules 9-2 & 9-3. Emotional Development. Basic emotions are universal They include happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, disgust, interest, etc. Facial expressions (also universal) are the most reliable cues. What is an emotion?.

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emotional development
Emotional Development
  • Basic emotions are universal
  • They include happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, disgust, interest, etc.
  • Facial expressions (also universal) are the most reliable cues
what is an emotion
What is an emotion?
  • Emotions are responses, including physiological responses
  • Sense or experience of feeling
  • Leads to expression, behavior; can be a motive
  • Related to thoughts and beliefs as well as immediate experience
functionalist view of emotion
Functionalist view of Emotion
  • What is their purpose?
  • Emotions are means of communicating and play a role in relationships.
  • They are also linked to an individual’s goals and motivation toward progress and overcoming obstacles.
  • Subjective evaluation of good and bad; comparable to pain in the physical realm
emotional competence sarnii
Emotional Competence - Sarnii
  • Awareness of emotional state
  • Detecting other’s emotions
  • Using emotional vocabulary appropriately
  • Empathy and sympathy
  • Realizing that inner emotional states do not always correspond to expression
  • Awareness that emotional expression plays a large role in relationships
  • Adaptively coping with negative emotions
what is emotional intelligence eq
What is emotional intelligence (EQ)?
  • Gardners “interpersonal intelligence”
  • Salovey & Mayer (1990): ability to perceive and express emotion accurately
    • MSCEIT (2002) Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test
  • Daniel Goleman (1995) Published a book, “Emotional Intelligence”
what is emotional intelligence eq1
What is emotional intelligence (EQ)?

Salovey & Mayer (1990): ability to perceive and express emotion accurately, including:

taking perspective

understanding the roles of emotion in relationships

using feelings to facilitate thought

managing emotions such as anger

emotions gone awry
Emotions Gone Awry
  • . . . Are the basis for some mental disorders.
    • Clinical depression
    • Bipolar disorder
    • Anxiety disorders
    • Intermittent explosive disorder
    • Antisocial personality disorder
erikson s psychosocial theory of infant toddler personality
Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Infant & Toddler Personality
  • Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
    • 1st year of life
    • Quality of the caregiver’s behavior
  • Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
    • 2nd year of life
    • Reasonable expectations for impulse control
emotional development in infancy
Emotional Development in Infancy
  • Primary emotions
    • Emerge early in life (first year)
    • Are culturally universal
    • Include
      • Surprise Sadness
      • Joy Fear
      • Anger Disgust
emotional milestones
Emotional Milestones

Birth attraction & withdrawal

2-3 mos. Social smile, respond to

facial expression

3-4 mos. Laugh at active stimuli

6-8 mos. Anger, fear, attachment

8-12 mos. Social referencing

18-30 mos. Self-conscious emotions

(shame, guilt, pride)

  • Appears in the 2nd half of the 1st year
  • Intensifies & remains until 18+ months
  • Stranger anxiety is the most frequent expression of fear
    • Stranger & situational characteristics
  • Separation protest also appears
  • Partially depends upon temperament and experiences
  • Appears about 6-8 months
  • Generalized distress is present in young infants
  • Anger in older babies may be in response to frustration
social referencing
Social Referencing
  • Reading others’ emotional cues to determine how to respond to a situation
  • Infants become better at this in the second year of life
  • We still do this as adults, e.g., panic, riots, looting, helping behavior
regulation of emotions
Regulation of Emotions
  • Key dimension of development
  • Ability increases with age & development
  • Shifts from external to internal in infancy
  • Individuals develop strategies for this
  • With age children develop greater capacity to:
    • Modulate arousal
    • Select & manage situations
    • Finding effective ways to cope with stress
emotional self regulation
Emotional Self-Regulation
  • Strategies used to adjust one’s own emotional state to a comfortable level
  • Young infants turn away, suck, are easily overwhelmed
  • Ability to self-regulate increases with brain development, experience, ability to shift attention and to move
  • Older infants distract themselves, leave the situation
emotions and the self
Emotions and the Self
  • Self-conscious emotions:
    • Do not appear in animals
    • May not be universal
    • Require self-awareness
    • Emerge later (1 ½ - 2 ½ years)
self conscious emotions
Self-conscious Emotions
  • Include empathy, embarrassment, envy, pride, shame, guilt
  • Involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self
  • Appear as the sense of self emerges
  • Require adult instruction in when to feel proud, ashamed or guilty
self conscious emotions1
Self-conscious Emotions
  • Shame, pride & guilt
    • Pride most often occurs in response to successful achievement
    • Shame is a global response to a threat to the self, also other-directed; reflects inability
    • Guilt is in response to specific failure, reflects culpability
  • These emotions serve to regulate the child’s behavior
emotional development self conscious emotions
Emotional DevelopmentSelf-conscious emotions
  • By age 3, these are clearly linked to self-evaluation
  • Parents should give feedback about performance, not the worth of the child. This causes intense self-conscious emotional experience.
self conscious emotions2
Self-conscious emotions
  • Beginning in early childhood, shame is associated with feelings of personal inadequacy, withdrawal and depression, anger and aggression.
    • Underuse shame in our culture
  • Guilt is related to good adjustment.
  • Reasons for guilt or shame must be considered.
emotional development ages 2 4
Emotional Development – Ages 2-4
  • Emotional vocabulary expands rapidly
  • Come to understand causes, consequences, and behavioral signs of emotion
  • Emphasize external factors
  • Can predict what people will do based on emotion
emotional development ages 2 41
Emotional Development – Ages 2-4
  • Small children do not deal well with conflicting cues (mixed emotions).
  • Securely attached children are advanced in emotional understanding.
  • Emotionally negative children experience more peer rejection.
maternal depression child development
Maternal Depression & Child Development
  • Babies of depressed mothers are irritable and have attachment difficulties
  • They sometimes withdraw into depression, or imitate parental anger
  • They can become impulsive & antisocial
  • They develop a negative world view, lack self-confidence, & perceive others as threatening
middle late childhood
Middle & Late Childhood
  • Increasing
    • awareness of the need for emotional management
    • ability to understand complex emotions
    • tendency to take events, situation into account
  • Improved ability to conceal negative emotions
  • Use self-directed strategies to redirect feelings: distractions, denial, redirection
gender differences emotional expression
Gender Differences – Emotional Expression
  • Elementary School
    • Boys hide emotions like sadness more
    • Girls hide disappointment
  • Adolescence
    • Girls feel more sadness, shame, guilt
    • Boys deny their emotions
  • Moodiness and extreme, but fleeting emotions
  • 5th to 9th grade, 50% decrease in being “very happy”
  • Environmental circumstances may be more important than hormones to this process
emotions in adulthood
Emotions in Adulthood
  • Older adults report:
    • Fewer negative emotions
    • Better emotional control
    • More positive emotions
  • More selective social relationships
  • May have to do with the passage of time
  • Stable individual differences in quality and intensity of emotional reaction, activity level, attention, and emotional self-regulation
  • New York Longitudinal Study (1956), Thomas & Chess, most comprehensive study of temperament to date
    • 141 children followed from infancy into adulthood
  • NYLS findings
  • Temperament is related to whether a person will experience psychological problems
  • Parenting practices can modify children’s emotional styles considerably
temperament dimensions
Temperament - Dimensions
  • Activity level
  • Rhythmicity
  • Distractibility
  • Approach/withdrawal
  • Adaptability
  • Attention span/persistence
  • Intensity of reaction
  • Threshold of responsiveness
    • Quality of mood
temperament types
Temperament - Types
  • Easy (40%) – quickly establish regular routines, generally cheerful, adapts well to new experiences
  • Difficult (10%) – irregular, slow to accept new experiences, reacts negatively and intensely
  • Slow-to-warm-up (15%) – mild reactions, adjusts slowly to new experience
      • (35% not classified)
measuring temperament
Measuring Temperament
  • Parental interviews or questionnaires.
    • Convenient
    • Depth of knowledge
    • Biased & subjective
  • Behavior ratings by pediatricians, teachers, and others
  • Observation
is temperament biological
Is Temperament Biological?
  • It is often believed to be biological.
  • Identical twins have more similar temperaments than fraternal ones.
  • There are consistent ethnic and sex differences.
  • These may be explained by parenting differences as well as genetic differences.
is temperament biological1
Is Temperament Biological?
  • However, it only has low to moderate stability from one developmental period to the next.
  • Temperament develops with age.
  • It can be modified by experiences, but not from one extreme to the other.
temperament continuity with adulthood
Temperament: Continuity with Adulthood
  • Easy babies well adjusted in early adulthood
  • Difficult babies have social problems
    • Men – less education
    • Women – marital problems
  • Patterns of inhibition & emotional control also appear to persist
temperament goodness of fit
Temperament & Goodness-of-Fit
  • Creation of child-rearing environments that recognize temperament and encourage adaptive functioning.
  • Difficult children are at risk for adjustment problems because they withdraw and react negatively.
  • Western parents tend to resort to angry, punitive discipline. The child responds with defiance/disobedience. Parents give in and model inconsistency.
kagan s behavioral inhibition
Kagan’s Behavioral Inhibition
  • Shy, subdued, timid child
    • Vs.
  • Sociable, bold, extraverted child
  • Inhibition to the unfamiliar
  • Begins about 7-9 months of age
  • Shyness is considered a negative in

American culture (social anxiety).

biological inhibition pattern
Biological Inhibition Pattern
  • High, stable heartrate
  • High cortisol levels
  • High activity in right frontal lobes