“Who’s he?” • Santa Cruz & Los Gatos, CA • UCSB – Botany • Easter Seal Camps • UW – Emotional Disturbance • Aurora, CO & PL 94-142 • UW – Emotional Disturbance & Alternative Programming • UK – Teacher Preparation & Special Education • Spaulding Youth Center • UO – Behavioral Disorders & OSEP PBIS Center • UConn – Center for Behavioral Education & Research, Neag School of Education
PURPOSE Provide overview of rationale, features, & outcomes of school-wide approach to positive behavior supports
Sample of Spring Topics • Managing behavioral escalations • Alternatives to suspension • Data-based decision making • Students w/ emotional & behavioral disorders • Behavioral & academic assessment • Early & adolescent literacy • Classroom management • Professional development & social behavior climate • Responsiveness-to-intervention • Behavior management in nonclassroom settings • Functional behavioral assessment • School-based mental health
OUTCOME OBJECTIVES • Rationale for adopting proactive systems approach to improving school climate • Features of School-wide Positive Behavior Support • Examples of SWPBS implementation • Evaluation data & outcomes
TOP FOUR 2005 Lack of financial support (since 2000) Overcrowded schools Lack of discipline & control Drug use #1 SPOT >2000 lack of financial support 1991-2000 drug use <1991 lack of discipline Rose, L. C., & Gallup. A. M. (2005). 37th annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll of the public’s attitudes toward the public schools. Kappan, September, 41-59.
Competing, Inter-related National Goals • Improve literacy, math, geography, science, etc. • Make schools safe, caring, & focused on teaching & learning • Improve student character & citizenship • Eliminate bullying • Prevent drug use • Prepare for postsecondary education • Provide a free & appropriate education for all • Prepare viable workforce • Affect rates of high risk, antisocial behavior • Leave no child behind • Etc….
SW-PBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
Context Matters: Examples Individual Student vs. School-wide
“Reiko” Assessments indicate that Reiko performs in average to above average range in most academic areas. However, her teacher has noticed Reiko’s frequent talking & asking & answering questions without raising her hand has become an annoying problem to other students & to teacher. What would you do?
“Kiyoshi” Kiyoshi is a highly competent student, but has long history of antisocial behavior. He is quick to anger, & minor events quickly escalate to major confrontations. He has few friends, & most of his conflicts occur with peers in hallways & cafeteria & on bus. In last 2 months, he has been given 8 days of in school detention & 6 days of out of school suspension. In a recent event, he broke glasses of another student. What would you do?
“Mitch” Mitch displays a number of stereotypic (e.g., light filtering with his fingers, head rolling) & self-injurious behaviors (e.g., face slapping, arm biting), & his communications are limited to a verbal vocabulary of about 25 words. When his usual routines are changed or items are not in their usual places, his rates of stereotypic & self-injurious behavior increase quickly. What would you do?
“Rachel” Rachel dresses in black every day, rarely interacts with teachers or other students, & writes & distributes poems & stories about witchcraft, alien nations, gundams, & other science fiction topics. When approached or confronted by teachers, she pulls hood of her black sweatshirt or coat over her head & walks away. Mystified by Rachel’s behavior, teachers usually shake their heads & let her walk away. Recently, Rachel carefully wrapped a dead squirrel in black cloth & placed it on her desk. Other students became frightened when she began talking to it. What would you do?
Fortunately, we have a science that guides us to… • Assess these situations • Develop behavior intervention plans based on our assessment • Monitor student progress & make enhancements All in ways that can be culturally & contextually appropriate Crone & Horner, 2003
However, context matters…. What factors influence our ability to implement what we know with accuracy, consistency, & durability for students like Rachel, Reiko, Mitch, & Kiyoshi?
“141 Days!” Intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral. Reiko is in this school!
5,100 referrals = 76,500 min @15 min = 1,275 hrs = 159 days @ 8 hrs
“Da place ta be” During 4th period, in-school detention room has so many students that the overflow is sent to the counselor’s office. Most students have been assigned for being in the hallways after the late bell. Kiyoshi is in this school!
“Cliques” During Advisory Class, the “sportsters” sit in the back of the room, & “goths” sit at the front. Most class activities result in out of seat, yelling arguments between the two groups. Mitch is in this classroom!
“a, b, c, h, b, o, m, t, v….” Principal indicates that 40% of kindergarteners are at serious risk for reading failure because they lack knowledge of alphabet & unable to produce individual sounds that make up words.
“This work is stupid” At beginning of year, 31% of entering 6th graders read at significantly below grade level.
“Four corners” Three rival gangs are competing for “four corners.” Teachers actively avoid the area. Because of daily conflicts, vice principal has moved her desk to four corners. Rachel is in this school!
“FTD” On 1st day of school, a teacher found “floral” arrangement on his desk. “Welcome to the neighborhood” was written on the card You are in this School!
Questions! • What would behavior support look like if Mitch, Rachel, Kiyoshi, & Reiko were in these classrooms & schools? • Are these environments safe, caring, & effective? Context Matters!
Messages Repeated! • Successful Individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or schools that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable • Learning & teaching environments must be redesigned to increase the likelihood of behavioral & academic success
2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior • Get Tough (practices) • Train-&-Hope (systems)
Worry #1“Teaching” by Getting Tough Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.” Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”
Immediate & seductive solution….”Get Tough!” • Clamp down & increase monitoring • Re-re-re-review rules • Extend continuum & consistency of consequences • Establish “bottom line” ...Predictable individual response
Reactive responses are predictable…. When we experience aversive situation, we select interventions that produce immediate relief • Remove student • Remove ourselves • Modify physical environment • Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others
When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” • Zero tolerance policies • Increased surveillance • Increased suspension & expulsion • In-service training by expert • Alternative programming …..Predictable systems response!
Erroneous assumption that student… • Is inherently “bad” • Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives” • Will be better tomorrow…….
But….false sense of safety/security! • Fosters environments of control • Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior • Shifts accountability away from school • Devalues child-adult relationship • Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
Science of behavior has taught us that students…. • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences ……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback….consider function
Non-examples of Function-Based approach “Function” = outcome, result, purpose, consequence • “Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re going to suspend you for 2 more.” • “Phloem, I’m taking your book away because you obviously aren’t ready to learn.” • “You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention,…let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.”
2001 Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence: Recommendations • Break up antisocial networks by changing social culture • Improve effectiveness of parent participation • Increase academic success • Create positive school-wide climates • Teach & encourage individual skills & competence
Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement 4 PBS Elements OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” CO PBS Agreements FCPS Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
Team-led Process Non-Teaching Family Behavioral Capacity Priority & Status Representation Specialized Support Administrator Team Community Data-based Decision Making Administrator Student Teaching Communications Start with Team that “Works.”
Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
3-4 Year Commitment Top 3 School- Wide Initiatives 3-Tiered Prevention Logic Agreements & Supports Coaching & Facilitation Administrative Participation Dedicated Resources & Time
Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
Self-Assessment Efficient Systems of Data Management Existing Discipline Data Data-based Action Plan Team-based Decision Making Multiple Systems Evidence- Based Practices SWIS