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Promoting Social Emotional Competence. Individualized Intensive Interventions: Developing a Behavior Support Plan. 3 b. CSEFEL. Agenda. Introduction to the Topic  Group Discussion: Changing How You View a Problem Importance of PBS Process of PBS Overview

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promoting social emotional competence

Promoting Social Emotional Competence

Individualized Intensive Interventions: Developing a Behavior Support Plan

3b

CSEFEL

agenda

Agenda

Introduction to the Topic 

Group Discussion: Changing How You View a Problem

Importance of PBS

Process of PBS Overview

Components of a Behavior Support Plan 

Building the Plan: Prevention Strategies

Building the Plan: Teaching New Skills

Skill Instruction Throughout the Day

Responding to Problem Behavior 

Effective Teaming & Teaming Logistics

Developing a Behavior Support Plan as a Team

Monitoring Outcomes

When Problem Behavior Returns 

3b

CSEFEL

learner objectives

Learner Objectives

Identify the steps of the process of PBS.

In this workshop, you will learn to:

Understand the difference between PBS and traditional discipline approaches.

Describe strategies that may be used to prevent problem behavior .

Identify replacement skills that may be taught to replace problem behavior.

Develop a behavior support plan for a case study child.

3b

CSEFEL

promoting social emotional competence4

Promoting Social Emotional Competence

Individualized Intensive Interventions

Social Emotional Teaching Strategies

Creating Supportive Environments

Building Positive Relationships

slide5

“If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we……..... ……….teach? ………punish?”“Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?”Tom Herner (NASDE President, Counterpoint 1998, p.2)

3b

CSEFEL

process of positive behavior support

Process of Positive Behavior Support

Step 1: Establishing a team and identifying goals of intervention

Step 2: Gathering information (functional assessment)

3b

CSEFEL

process of positive behavior support8

Process of Positive Behavior Support

Step 3: Developing hypotheses

Step 4: Designing behavior support plans

Step 5: Implementing, monitoring, evaluating outcomes, and refining plans

3b

CSEFEL

hypothesis statement

Hypothesis Statement

Description of the problem behavior

Predictors of the problem behavior

Purpose of the behavior

Maintaining consequences

3b

CSEFEL

hypothesis statement10

Hypothesis Statement

Jackson avoids the demands of activities that he finds difficult (structured language-based activities, sharing objects, interactive play) by resisting or withdrawing. If pushed to participate, Jackson will react by throwing objects, screaming, or stating “shut up.” When Jackson resists, adults will often give up or allow him to leave the activity.

3b

CSEFEL

behavior support plan components

Behavior SupportPlan Components

Behavior Hypotheses - Purpose of the behavior, your best guess about why the behavior occurs

Prevention Strategies- Ways to make events and interactions that predict problem behavior easier for the child to manage

Replacement Skills - Skills to teach throughout the day to replace the problem behavior

Responses- What adults will do when the problem behavior occurs

3b

CSEFEL

prevention strategies

Prevention Strategies

What can be done to make problem behavior irrelevant (how can the environment be changed to reduce the likelihood that problem behavior will occur)?

Do the selected procedures that fit in the natural routines and structure of the classroom or family?

3b

CSEFEL

prevention strategies20

Prevention Strategies

Use what works!

Can be anything that helps the child not respond to the trigger or changes the trigger so it does not cause problem behavior

3b

CSEFEL

prevention choice

Prevention: Choice

Choice can be offered using photographs, visuals, or actual objects

When used as a prevention strategy, choices must be offered explicitly and personally to the child

Choices should represent options of desirable activities or materials

3b

CSEFEL

slide22

4

CSEFEL

slide23

4

CSEFEL

slide24

4

CSEFEL

slide25

4

CSEFEL

prevention safety signal

Prevention: Safety Signal

Make eye contact and gain the child’s attention

Provide a warning to the child (e.g., 5 more minutes or 3 more times)

Give the child several countdowns (e.g., 2 more times, 1 more time, all done)

State the ending activity and activity to follow (“5 more minutes, then clean-up”)

Use visuals, photos, or object to represent next activity

3b

CSEFEL

prevention visual schedule

Prevention: Visual Schedule

Use photos or line drawings

Depict the major activities or steps of an activity

Assist the child in removing the visual once the activity is complete

3b

CSEFEL

slide30

Mini Schedule

First

Then

prevention visual activity analysis

Prevention: Visual Activity Analysis

Provide visuals of the steps used

within an activity (e.g., art project)

Child can use the visuals to complete

activity independently

Some children may need to remove

each visual when steps are completed

3b

CSEFEL

slide32

Activity Analysis Using Clip Art

Washing Hands

1

2

3

4

5

Get soap.

Wet hands.

Wash hands.

Throw away.

Dry hands.

prevention visual guidance

Prevention: Visual Guidance

Provide visuals for children that

highlight boundaries

Use feet for line-up (each child stands

on a set of footprints), carpet squares

for circle time, mats for block

structures

3b

CSEFEL

prevention activity arrangement

Prevention: Activity Arrangement

Arrange activities so that child understands steps

Have all materials accessible to eliminate wait time

Demonstrate activity before prompting child to begin

Break down activity to accommodate differing developmental levels

Use partial participation, promote the participation of children who may only be able to do one part or one step

3b

CSEFEL

prevention materials accommodation

Prevention: Materials Accommodation

Arrange activities to provide accessible materials and decrease child frustration

Provide enough materials for # of children in activity; provide same materials for toddlers (same color, same type)

Provide adapted materials (e.g.,roller paints, special scissors)

3b

CSEFEL

prevention scaffolding interactions

Prevention: Scaffolding Interactions

Move into play situation

Interpret need of child with challenges (e.g., “Billy, do you want to build?”)

Assist the child with turn-taking or peer entry (“Joey, can Billy build on the Lego table?”)

Continue with questions or instructions until children begin playing. Try to be minimally intrusive; only do what is necessary

Move out of situation as soon as possible

3b

CSEFEL

escape e g activity demands social interaction prevention strategies

Escape(e.g., activity, demands, social interaction)PREVENTION STRATEGIES

  • Select reinforcer prior to activity
  • Incorporate child interest
  • Use timer
  • Self-management system
  • Provide peer supports
  • Add manipulatives
  • Provide visual supports
  • Follow least preferred with most preferred

Modify task length, modify expectations

Modify materials

Modify instructions, modify response mode

Break task down

Provide choice

Modify seating arrangements

Reduce distractions

Provide activity schedule

3b

CSEFEL

slide41

Obtain(e.g., attention, object, activity) PREVENTION STRATEGIES

  • Modify task length, modify expectations
  • Modify materials
  • Modify instructions, modify response mode
  • Provide more frequent attention/reinforcement
  • Activity schedule
  • Contingency for activity completion
  • Schedule time with adult or peer
  • Schedule access to desired object/event
  • Choice of activity, material, and/or partner
  • Peer support
  • Provide frequent offers of assistance
  • Promote active participation
  • Add manipulatives
  • Incorporate child interests
  • Use timer, alarm to delay reinforcement

CSEFEL

behavior support plan components42

Behavior SupportPlan Components

Behavior Hypotheses - Purpose of the behavior, your best guess about why the behavior occurs

Prevention Strategies- Ways to make events and interactions that predict problem behavior easier for the child to manage

Replacement Skills - Skills to teach throughout the day to replace the problem behavior

Responses- What adults will do when the problem behavior occurs

3b

CSEFEL

teaching replacement skills

Teaching Replacement Skills

Teach alternative behavior to problem behavior

Replacement skills must be efficient and effective (i.e., work quickly for the child)

Consider skills that child already has

Make sure the reward for appropriate behavior is consistent

Teach replacement skills during time the child is not having problem behavior; teach throughout the day

3b

CSEFEL

slide44

Behavior Equation

Child screams and resists

Teacher lets child out of activity

Child asked to join circle

Child asks for break

Teacher lets child out of activity

social stories

Social Stories

Social stories provide a script for the child about social situations and expectations

The story is written from the child’s perspective

The story includes descriptive, perspective, and directive sentences

The story must match the child’s symbolic and receptive communication level

3b

CSEFEL

social skills instruction

Social Skills Instruction

Determine skill to be taught, be specific (what does the behavior look like?)

Ensure that opportunities to teach and practice the skill are available

Decide on method of instruction (e.g., role play, prompt and praise, etc.)

Teach skill

Provide opportunities to practice skill

Reinforce skill use in natural contexts

3b

CSEFEL

self management

Self-Management

Identify an observable behavior that child will self-manage

Visually display behaviors for the child

Provide instruction to the child on the targeted skill

Give child a mechanism to monitor engagement in the behavior through a checklist or chart

Provide positive attention to the child for engaging in the behavior and using the self-monitoring system

3b

CSEFEL

slide52

I Can Be a SUPER FRIEND!

Created for Tim by Lisa Grant & Rochelle Lentini

2002

slide53

I like talking and playing

with my friends

at school.

slide54

Sometimes, I want to play with what my friends are playing with.

When I play, I sometimes feel like taking toys, using mean words, or hitting and kicking.

My friends get sad or mad when I hit, kick, use mean words, or take toys.

slide55

I can join my

friends and play nicely.

I can take

turns nicely.

CUE CARDS

“Stop” is glued onto one side of the cue cards.

“The Replacement Skill Cue” is glued onto the other side of the cue cards.

(Cut-out and place pictures on a ring, up-side-down to each other, so that they can easily be flipped over and read. Cards are about 2” x2” in size.)

I can go

with the flow.

I can stop,

think, and do.

slide56

I CAN BE A SUPER FRIEND

I can join my friends and play nicely. ________

I can take turns nicely. ________

I can go with the flow. ________

I can stop, think, and do. ________

DATE: ___________

teaching replacement skills58

Teaching Replacement Skills

Teach alternative behavior to problem behavior

Replacement skills must be efficient and effective (i.e., work quickly for the child)

Consider skills that child already has

Make sure the reward for appropriate behavior is consistent

Teach replacement skills during time the child is not having problem behavior; teach throughout the day

3b

CSEFEL

slide59

Time/Activity

request teacher

attention

colors

counting

recognize

name

SKILLS MATRIX

Arrival

/ hug hello

/

/

Planning

/want turn

/

Centers

/show me

play w/ me

/

/

/

Clean-up

/help me

/

/

Washing Hands

Snack

/want more

/

/

Outside Play

/want help

show me

play w/me

/

/

Washing

Hands

Small Group

/show me

want turn

/

/

/

3b

CSEFEL

escape e g activity demands social interaction replacement skills

Escape(e.g., activity, demands, social interaction) REPLACEMENT SKILLS

Request break

Set work goals

Request help

Follow schedule

Participate in routine

Choice

Self-management

3b

CSEFEL

obtain e g attention object activity replacement skills

Obtain(e.g., attention, object, activity)REPLACEMENT SKILLS

Follow schedule

Participate in routine

Self-management

Request help

Teach delay of reinforcement

Request attention

Choice

3b

CSEFEL

behavior support plan components62

Behavior SupportPlan Components

Behavior Hypotheses - Purpose of the behavior, your best guess about why the behavior occurs

Prevention Strategies- Ways to make events and interactions that predict problem behavior easier for the child to manage

Replacement Skills - Skills to teach throughout the day to replace the problem behavior

Responses- What adults will do when the problem behavior occurs

3b

CSEFEL

response to problem behavior

Response to Problem Behavior

Select procedures that will make problem behavior ineffective

Make sure rewards for appropriate behavior equal or exceed rewards for problem behavior

3b

CSEFEL

escape e g activity demands social interaction responses to problem behavior

Escape(e.g., activity, demands, social interaction) RESPONSES TO PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

  • Use “wait-time”
  • Praise/reinforce when replacement skill is performed
  • Respond in a way that does NOT maintain problem behavior

Redirect/cue to use appropriate “new replacement skill” and then allow escape

Cue with appropriate prevention strategy

State “exactly” what is expected

Offer alternatives

3b

CSEFEL

obtain e g attention object activity responses to problem behavior

Obtain (e.g., attention, object, activity) RESPONSES TO PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

  • Use “wait-time”
  • Praise/reinforce when replacement skill is performed
  • Respond in a way that does NOT maintain problem behavior

Redirect/cue to use appropriate “new replacement skill”

Cue with appropriate prevention strategy

State “exactly” what is expected

Offer choices

3b

CSEFEL

safety net procedures

Safety-net Procedures

If a child is in danger of harming himself or others, you must first be concerned about safety

You may hold a child or remove a child from the situation to keep children safe

Safety-net procedures may be planned for children who have a history of dangerous outbursts

Safety-net procedures only keep children safe, they do not change behavior.

Safety-net procedures are only appropriate when there is also a full behavior support plan or intention to develop a plan

3b

CSEFEL

effective teaming

Effective Teaming

All team members (staff/family) participate in plan development

All help with development of plan components/material creation

All follow through with implementation

All monitor, give feedback, and make amendments to the plan

3b

CSEFEL

team meeting logistics

Team Meeting Logistics

Meet in comfortable location

Meet at times convenient for the family

De-jargon the process

Use room arrangement to facilitate equal exchange

Be clear about starting and ending times

State goals and agenda for the meeting at the beginning

3b

CSEFEL

building a family centered team

Building a Family-Centered Team

Use facilitation techniques to promote active participation (e.g., round robin, group graphics)

Ask family and other team members to identify routines and activities that are problematic

3b

CSEFEL

developing a behavior support plan

Developing a BehaviorSupport Plan

Must be linked to functional assessment

Must include all components

Must “fit” with the abilities, routines, and values of caregivers

Must have “buy-in” from the team

3b

CSEFEL

support plan development

Support Plan Development

Use chart paper to analyze problem behavior in routines, activities, or interactions

Identify the basic equation (trigger,behavior, maintaining consequence) of the problem behavior and write on the chart paper

3b

CSEFEL

function

Triggers

Behaviors

Maintaining Consequence

Preventions

New Skills

New Responses

Circle times begins; child asked to sit

Pulls away, cries, hits

Adult lets him leave

Function:

slide73

Support PlanDevelopment (cont.)

Identify the Function of the Problem Behavior and Write on Chart Paper

3b

CSEFEL

slide74

Triggers

Behaviors

Maintaining Consequence

Preventions

New Skills

New Responses

Circle times begins; child asked to sit

Pulls away, cries, hits

Adult lets him leave

Function:

Escape

slide75

Support PlanDevelopment (cont.)

  • Brainstorm Prevention Strategies
    • Strategies to make routines or activities easier for the child
    • Strategies to soften the triggers

3b

CSEFEL

slide76

Triggers

Behaviors

Maintaining Consequence

Preventions

New Skills

New Responses

Circle times begins; child asked to sit

Pulls away, cries, hits

Adult lets him leave

Function:

Escape

  • Choice
  • Visual activity schedule
  • Manipulatives
  • Intermittent praise
slide77

Support PlanDevelopment (cont.)

Brainstorm ideas about what new skills should be taught to replace problem behavior; write new skills on chart

3b

CSEFEL

slide78

Triggers

Behaviors

Maintaining Consequence

Preventions

New Skills

New Responses

Circle times begins; child asked to sit

Pulls away, cries, hits

Adult lets him leave

Function:

Escape

  • Choice
  • Visual activity schedule
  • Manipulatives
  • Intermittent praise
  • Request “all done”
  • Increase duration of engagement
slide79

Support PlanDevelopment (cont.)

  • Brainstorm ideas about how to respond to problem behavior when it occurs; write new responses on chart

3b

CSEFEL

slide80

Triggers

Behaviors

Maintaining Consequence

Preventions

New Skills

New Responses

Circle times begins; child asked to sit

Pulls away, cries, hits

Adult lets him leave

Function:

Escape

  • Choice
  • Visual activity schedule
  • Manipulatives
  • Intermittent praise
  • Anticipate “all done” and cue
  • Redirect to “all done” & release
  • Praise for sitting longer
  • Request “all done”
  • Increase duration of engagement
support plan development cont

Support PlanDevelopment (cont.)

Review plan ideas; eliminate pieces that don’t fit or are difficult for team to do

Review entire plan; emphasize that each column is necessary

Repeat process for other routines, settings, or behavior functions

3b

CSEFEL

behavior support plan development tips

Behavior Support Plan Development Tips

Develop plan using plain language

Develop mini-plans for difficult routines

Make sure plan will fit with routines/activities/values of family/teaching staff

Develop action plan of who will produce what components needed to implement the plan

Design components that are easy to use, easy to remember

Plan must accommodate competing demands on teaching staff/family

3b

CSEFEL

slide83

Action Planning Form

Child Name: Cassie Program: Village Pre-K Date: 10-11-02

Team members: Mrs. Wilson (paraprofessional), Ms. Little (teacher), Mrs. Pope (parent), Mrs. Lentini (consultant)

Planning Objectives: Develop behavior support plan materials to assist Cassie at home and in preschool

Need

Action Steps

Person Responsible/ Date

Follow Up

1. Laminated plan steps for home and classroom use

A. Write out steps, get approval.

B. Develop laminated plan charts (2 copies for home and 2 copies for school)

C. Develop 4 mini-plans to address transition issues. Must be small enough to fit in pocket.

Ms. Lentini by 10/24

By 10/28

By 10/28

Share with groups

Send home in backpack

Send charts home in backpack

slide84

Need

Action Steps

Person Responsible/ Date

Follow Up

2. Develop checklist to monitor outcomes

A. Develop checklist to monitor tantrums, use of “all done,” and overall daily affect.

B. Share draft with team

C. Make edits and distribute copies to team.

D. Check in to see if it is being used

Ms. Little by 10/24

By 10/24

By 10/28

11/15

Send copies home in backpack

Ms. Pope will bring completed charts to the classroom.

slide85

Need

Action Steps

Person Responsible/ Date

Follow Up

3. Visual for circle time

4. First/Then visuals for transitions

A. Develop two visuals for circle time

B. Laminate and Velcro

A. Develop 4 First/Then

visuals (two for school and

two for home)

B. Laminate and Velcro

C. Identify basic pictures

for each environment

D. Make and laminate

pictures

Ms. Wilson by 10/28

Ms. Pope by 10/28

Talk with Ms. Little after school on 10/24

School copies will be dropped off with Cassie.

plan implementation

Plan Implementation

Teach classroom staff/family – review strategies, demonstrate or guide, provide reinforcement (not criticism)

Design supports that help the adult remember the plan

Be cautious about extinction bursts – offer support, availability

Ask for time, assure classroom staff/family that you are committed to creating a plan that will work

3b

CSEFEL

working as a collaborative team

Working as aCollaborative Team

Assign roles

Determine agenda and time for meetings

Ensure group participation through facilitation and participatory processes

3b

CSEFEL

roles

Roles

  • Reporter – person who shares group information, makes presentation
  • Encourager – person who provides feedback to group members
  • Jargon-buster – person who asks the question “what do you mean when you say ‘gobbley-gook’” and helps the group with communicating clearly

Facilitator – person who guides group in stating agenda, work goals, time allocation

Recorder – person who writes down the discussion

Time Keeper – Person who tracks time and warns when agenda item is ending

3b

CSEFEL

case study group instructions

Case Study Group Instructions

Assign roles

Review child description

Review hypotheses

Review observations

Review interview

Develop a support plan (which includes a plan to teach the replacement skills)

Report to group

3b

CSEFEL

process of positive behavior support90

Process of PositiveBehavior Support

Step 1: Establishing a team and identifying goals

Step 2: Gathering information (functional assessment)

Step 3: Developing hypotheses (best guess)

Step 4: Designing behavior support plans

Step 5: Implementing, monitoring, evaluating outcomes, and refining plan

3b

CSEFEL

monitoring outcomes

Monitoring Outcomes

Identify outcomes valued by the team

“KIS it” (Keep It Simple) Create simple, user-friendly forms to monitor outcomes (e.g., rating scales, check sheets)

Monitor implementation of the plan

Schedule dates for check-ins and evaluate the effectiveness of the support plan

3b

CSEFEL

slide92

Ben’s Playtime

3=Cooperated,

stayed briefly

2=Fussed, took several turns

1= Cried, refused to play

4=Laughing, stayed

slide93

Amy’s Difficulties

Week of _____________

Rate the problem behavior:

0=no problems, 1 = whining, resisting , 2= screaming, falling on floor,

3=screaming, hitting, other aggression

slide94

Average AggressionChild’s Name: ______________ Week of: _________________Check the number of times the child is aggressive during the activity. Aggression includes: hits, pinches, pulls hair, bites, kicks, & scratches.

slide95

Average DurationChild’s Name: ______________________ Behavior: ____sitting______Week of: _________________ Average Duration for Week: ___9_____ minutesStarting from the bottom, shade the number of boxes that represent the length of the target behavior. Each box represents TWO minutes.

slide96

Peer InteractionChild’s Name: ______________ Observer: ___________________ Check yes (Y) or no (N) at time one (T1) and time two (T2) to indicate whether the child is interacting with a peer at the time of observation.T1 and T2 observations should be at least 5 minutes apart.

slide97

Play BehaviorChild’s Name: _________________ Week of: _________ Time: ___:___--___:___Indicate play behavior at the beginning, middle, and end of each play period. Summarize play behavior by placing totals in summary column.

Weekly Total

___Not Playing

___Play with toy alone

___Play with toy with peer

when problem behavior returns

When ProblemBehavior Returns

First,

Review plan and make sure it is being implemented as planned

Review evaluation data to determine if the pattern is an extinction burst (worse before it gets better)

Examine events to see if there are new triggers for behavior

3b

CSEFEL

when problem behavior returns cont

When Problem Behavior Returns (cont.)

Then,

Restore support plan and implement with fidelity; or

Continue plan through extinction burst; or

Add components to plan to address new triggers; or

Conduct a new functional assessment and develop new support strategies

3b

CSEFEL

pbs quiz how to play the game

PBS Quiz: How to Playthe Game

Designate recorder and announcer

Listen to question and determine your answer

Recorder writes down answer

Announcer stands up and waits to be called on (does not show the answer)

3b

CSEFEL

summary

Summary

Behavior support plans are developed by a team

The support plan must include prevention strategies, replacement skills, and new ways to respond to problem behavior

Behavior support efforts are ongoing, and outcomes must be monitored

3b

CSEFEL