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  1. Chapter 10, Section 1 Do Now Why did the Catholic Church feel threatened by Galileo? The Scientific Revolution

  2. Chapter 10 Timeline 1543 – Vesalius Publishes On the Fabric of the Human Body 1610 – Galileo’s discoveries are published 1628 – Harvey publishes On the Motion of the Heart and Blood 1632 – Galileo faces the Inquisition 1637 – Descartes publishes Discourse on Method 1702 – First daily newspaper published in London 1714 – The Hanoverian dynasty is established 1721 – Robert Wadpole becomes cabinet head in Britain 1730s – Rococo style spreads 1740 – War of Austrian Succession begins 1748 – Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748 – Baron de Montesquieu publishes The Spirit of the Laws 1756 – The Seven Years’ War erupts 1757 – William Pitt the Elder becomes cabinet head 1762 – Rousseau publishes The Social Contract 1762 – Catherine the Great becomes ruler of Russia 1763 – Voltaire writes his Treatise on Toleration 1763 – The Treaty of Paris is signed 1776 – Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations 1776 – The American Revolution begins 1783 – Treaty of Paris recognizes American Independence

  3. The Scientific Revolution Turning Points - Bill Blakemore

  4. Impact of the Renaissance • Review: Rebirth of Antiquity • Humanists mastered Latin and Greek • Rediscovered classical works • Ptolemy • Archimedes • Plato • Aristotle • Studying led to diverse ideas

  5. Inventions/Developments • Printing Press (Gutenberg) • Literacy • Spread of ideas • Accurate Measurements • Weights ships could carry • Instruments • Telescope • Microscope • Mathematics • Rediscovered ancient works • Developed new theories

  6. Astronomy • Geocentric Model • Ptolemaic system(2nd century) • Earth-centered • Universe – concentric spheres • Heliocentric model • Copernicus’ system (16th century) • Sun-centered • Universe – Elliptical orbits

  7. Nicholas Copernicus • Polish mathematician • 1543 • Publication • On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres • Heliocentric System • Sun-centered • Earth revolves and rotates

  8. Johannes Kepler • German mathematician • Disproves Ptolemy • Used detailed astronomical data • Laws of Planetary Movement • Confirmed sun-centered universe • Elliptical Orbits of planets

  9. Galileo Galilei • Italian teacher of mathematics • Telescope • Inventor/developer • Made regular observations of the heavens • Discoveries • Mountains on the moon • 4 moons of Jupiter (Galilean moons) • Sunspots • Heavenly bodies have substance • Issues with the church • Threatened church’s conception (idea/portrayal) of the universe.

  10. What did Galileo see? The 4 Galilean Satellites in a photo montage at left An amateur image of the moons below (like what Galileo would have observed)

  11. Newton - Glencoe Sir Isaac Newton • Brilliant mind • United the works of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo • Background • Born: 1642 in England • Cambridge University scholar • Mathematics professor • Publication • Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy • Aka Principia • Universal Law of Gravitation • Explains planetary movement • Motion of objects in the universe

  12. Medicine Developments • Antiquity • Galen (100 AD) • Greek physician • Andres Vesalius • Dissected human bodies • Description of organs • Detailed account on the body • William Harvey • Heart circulates blood, not the liver • Blood cycle through veins

  13. Chemistry • Robert Boyle • Chemistry experiments • Boyle’s Law • Property of gasses • Volume varies based on pressure applied • Antoine Lavoisier • System for naming elements • Founder of Modern Chemistry

  14. Women’s Contributions • Margaret Cavendish • English aristocratic family • Wrote on scientific matters • Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy • Published under her own name • Maria Winkelmann • German astronomer • Discovered a comet • Applied to ranking position • After husband’s death • Denied: lack of education and a woman

  15. Philosophy and Reason • Rene Descartes • French philosopher • Ideology • Uncertainty seemed to be everywhere • “I think, therefore I am” certain • Philosophy dominated Western thought • Until the 20th century • Rationalism • Reason is the chief source of knowledge

  16. Scientific Method • Francis Bacon • English philosopher • Few scientific credentials • Not a scientist • “The true and lawful goal of the sciences is none other than this: that human life be endowed with new discoveries and power.” • Scientific Method • Systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence • Major element of modern science • Inductive reasoning • Particular  General thinking

  17. Scientific Method

  18. Chapter 10, Section 1 The Scientific Revolution