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Chapter 3. Logic and Language. Preview of 3.1 - 3.3. Problem areas 3.1 Proposition 3.2 Subtlety of definitional terms 3.3 Largely unproblematic. Chapter 3.1. This chapter is about “What is actually meant by . . . .” Which of these concepts/terms were difficult? Proposition

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Logic and Language

preview of 3 1 3 3
Preview of 3.1 - 3.3
  • Problem areas
    • 3.1
      • Proposition
    • 3.2
      • Subtlety of definitional terms
    • 3.3
      • Largely unproblematic
chapter 3 1
Chapter 3.1
  • This chapter is about “What is actually meant by . . . .”
  • Which of these concepts/terms were difficult?
    • Proposition
    • Cognitive meaning
    • Emotive force
  • For the concepts/terms that were confusing, can someone clarify it for us by defining and giving at least one example, or the range of examples, of it?
  • Why is it important to understand these concepts/terms?
  • Review problematic exercises
chapter 3 2
Chapter 3.2
  • Which of these concepts/terms were difficult?
    • Ambiguity versus vagueness
    • Extensional definition
      • Ostensive
      • Enumerative
      • Subclassical
    • Intensional definition
      • Lexical (genus & differentia)
      • Stipulative
      • Precising
      • Theoretical
  • For the concepts/terms that were confusing, can someone clarify it for us by defining and giving at least one example, or the range of examples, of it?
  • Why is it important to understand these concepts/terms?
  • Review problematic exercises
why care about definitions
Why care about definitions?
  • ‘Define’ literally means to put ‘limits around’ (fr. L. de ‘about’ + finis‘limit’).
  • So, definition limitsmeanings.
    • Minimizes
      • vagueness (meaningsshading off into other areas)
      • ambiguity (more than one meaning)
    • Minimizes complications of “It all depends on what you mean by __________.”
definition by extension
Definition by extension
  • Pointing (a.k.a. ‘ostensive’)
    • actually showing one or more cases
  • Enumeration
    • listing individual examples
  • Subclass
    • listing types or categories
  • Exhaustive v. non-exhaustive?
intensional definition
Intensional definition
  • Stipulative: personal, ad hoc, coined or not
  • Lexical: positive, descriptive, dictionary-type, though not necessarily exclusively so
  • Precising: minimizes vagueness & ambiguity, to “put a fine point on it,” to distinguish precise meaning frompopular meaning
  • Theoretical: places a term in a particular context; may give meaning to both term and context
  • Persuasive: affective, subjective, emotive
definition by intension
Definition by intension
  • Synonym
    • Another word (lit.  ‘similar’ +  ‘name’)
  • Etymology
    • Linguistic genealogy (lit. ‘true’ + s‘account’)
  • Test
    • Establishes criteria to be met
  • Genus + difference/differentia
    • “garden variety” definition technique: ‘x is a y [that . . . .]’
chapter 3 2 cont d
Chapter 3.2, cont’d.
  • Which of these concepts/terms were difficult?
    • Genus versus difference/differentia
    • Definiendumversusdefiniens
    • Counterexample
  • For the concepts/terms that were confusing, can someone clarify it for us by defining and giving at least one example, or the range of examples, of it?
  • Why is it important to understand these concepts/terms?
  • What are the criteria for producing a good definition?
    • Not to wide
    • Not to narrow
    • Not obscure, ambiguous, figurative
    • Not circular
    • Not negative if it can be positive
    • Not use unsuitable criteria to determine extension
  • Review problematic exercises
ways of defining terms
Ways of defining: terms
  • ‘definiendum’: word to be defined
  • ‘definiens’: words doing the defining
  • ‘extension’: set of objects in defined class
  • ‘intension’: properties of objects in class
rules
Rules
  • What is meant by essential characteristics (necessary & sufficient)?
  • How can the definiens be too broad or narrow?
  • What is meant by circularity?
  • Cite examples of ambiguity, obscurity, figurative or emotive language.
chapter 3 3
Chapter 3.3
  • Which of these concepts/terms were difficult?
    • Equivocation versus merely verbal dispute
    • Persuasive definition
  • For the concepts/terms that were confusing, can someone clarify it for us by defining and giving at least one example, or the range of examples, of it?
  • Why is it important to understand these concepts/terms?
  • Review problematic exercises