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Terrorism & Force Protection. YOUR NAME HERE. “On September the 11th, enemies of freedom committed an act of war against our country… Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists. 

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Terrorism & Force Protection

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    1. Terrorism & Force Protection YOUR NAME HERE

    2. “On September the 11th, enemies of freedom committed an act of war against our country… Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists.  From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime.” — President George W. Bush, 20 Sep 01

    3. Overview • History • Definitions • Characteristics, Objectives, & Tactics • US National Policy and Military Policy • Future of Terrorism

    4. Hassan-i Sabbah, Iranian missionary who founded the Hashshashin History • Terrorism to achieve political agendas isn’t new • Jewish dissidents opposed Roman rule (48 C.E.) • Islamic sect called Hashshashin pursued “righteous causes” • Crusaders employed rape as terror tactic

    5. Radical Shiite Muqtada al-Sadr History • Since 1990s, religious fundamentalism emerged as primary force for terror • Weapons proliferation narrowed the gap between the firepower of the state and dissidents

    6. Interim Summary • History • Definitions • Characteristics, Objectives, & Tactics • US National Policy and Military Policy • Future of Terrorism

    7. Walter Laqueur: “Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force to achieve a political objective when innocent people are targeted.” Department of Defense: “The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives.” Definitions

    8. Joint Pub. 3-07.2 The calculated use of violence or threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or idelogical. —Joint Publication 3-07.2, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Antiterrorism

    9. Key Criteria • Violence • Political goal • Psychological impact and fear • Targeting of non-combatants

    10. Guerilla v. Terrorism Guerilla Terrorism

    11. 2004: Train bombings in Spain; Al Qaeda claims responsibility Typologies of Terrorism • Political: Force governments to change structure or policies, or to achieve radical societal change • Religious: Objectives/actions divinely guided; often tied to ethnic and nationalist identities • Social: “Special interest” (i.e., animal rights)

    12. Interim Summary • History • Definitions • Characteristics, Objectives, & Tactics • US National Policy and Military Policy • Future of Terrorism

    13. Characteristics • Status: Most from middle class backgrounds, with some from extreme wealth • Education: Intelligent and literate, with varying levels of formal education • Age: Operational members aged between 20-35, while suicide bombers tend to be younger • Gender: Most are male but not exclusively so “There’s nothing wrong with being a terrorist, as long as you win.” (Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd Conservation Society)

    14. Objectives of Terrorism • Attract attention for cause • Demonstrate group’s power • Show government’s lack of power • Exact revenge • Obtain logistical support • Cause a government to overreact

    15. Terrorist Planning Cycle 1. Broad target selection: Collection of data on large number of potential targets 2. Intelligence and surveillance: Information gathering on the targets with greatest possibility of success (i.e. schedules, security, layout, etc.) 6. Action: Generally, goal is to get in, get the job done, and get out before security forces can react 7. Escape and exploitation: Escape plans well rehearsed and exploitation of successful attack vital to achieve desired effect 4. Pre-attack surveillance and planning: Quantity and quality of data gathering increases, and usually is gathered over days to weeks 5. Attack rehearsal: Often includes relocation to target site, testing of security responsiveness and escape routes, and checking equipment performance 3. Specific target selection: Decision point!

    16. Tactics • Seizures • Raids • Sabotage • Threat or Hoax • Use of WMD • Assassination • Arson • Bombing • Hostage taking • Kidnapping • Hijacking “Between now and 2015 terrorist tactics will become increasingly sophisticated and designed to achieve mass casualties.” (National Intelligence Council)

    17. Tactics Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat (top right) and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (below) • Assassination: Murder of prominent persons, symbolic enemies, or traitors who defect from the group • Arson: Requires little technical knowledge, poses low risk to terrorist, and can cause significant destruction

    18. Tactics • Bombing: Explosive devices commonly employed in warfare are now an integral part of the terrorist’s arsenal • Oct 1983: Marine barracks in Beirut; 245 were killed and 146 wounded • Oct 2000: Navy destroyer USS Cole attacked, resulting in the death of 17 sailors and 39 injured

    19. Tactics • Improvised explosive device (IED) is the terrorist’s weapon of choice: • Inexpensive to produce • Detonation techniques • Low risk to the perpetrator • Placement/concealment • High attention-getting capacity

    20. Tactics Sep 2004: Chechen terrorists took hundreds of school children and adults hostage in Beslan, Russia Oct 2002: Ingrid Betancourt kidnapped by the FARC; still missing • Hostage taking: Overt seizure of individuals with the intent of gaining publicity or concessions in return for release of the hostage • Kidnapping: Covert seizure of one or more specific person(s) in order to extract specific demands

    21. Tactics • Hijacking or Skyjacking: Normally executed to produce a spectacular hostage situation; any passenger transport can be used • Seizure: Usually involves a building or object that has value in the eyes of the audience 1976: Highjacked Flight 139 out of Tel Aviv was diverted to Entebbe, Uganda. Israeli forces, led by Col Yoni Netanyahu, rescued the hostages in Operation Thunderbolt. Netanyahu was the only military casualty.

    22. April 2005: Insurgents led a coordinated attack on Abu Ghraib prison; intended to free detainees and kill US forces… FAILED! Tactics • Raids /Attacks on Facilities: Done to gain access to media, acquire resources, and/or demonstrate government’s inability to secure critical facilities • Sabotage: Destruction of equipment or infrastructure to demonstrate vulnerability of society and to disrupt services

    23. 1995: Terror group Aum Shinrikyo released Sarin gas in the Tokyo subway, injuring thousands and killing 12 people Tactics • Threat or Hoaxes: Threat that causes diversion of resources; can dull effectiveness of preventive or countermeasures • Use of WMD: Chemical weapons used in the past… many groups have expressed desire to acquire WMD “Acquiring weapons (WMD) for the defense of Muslims is a religious duty.” (Osama Bin Laden)

    24. Common Terrorist Tactics (Jan 1968 – Dec 2006) In 2005, the 10 most lethal attacks were conducted by radical Islamic extremist suicide bombers. Source: MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base, CAO 6 Dec 06

    25. Interim Summary • History • Definitions • Characteristics, Objectives, & Tactics • US National Policy and Military Policy • Future of Terrorism

    26. Asymmetry • Asymmetric warfare: A new kind of enemy, a new kind of war… • Symmetric warfare poses too great a risk • Asymmetric tactics– a hit and run approach on soft targets– can affect foreign policy • Oct 1993: Battle of Mogadishu led to US pullout of Somalia, failure to engage in Rwanda, and heavy reliance of airpower in Balkans

    27. US Terror Policy • First articulated by the Reagan Admin. and reaffirmed by every president since: • No concessions to terrorists • Terrorists treated as criminals; rule of law applies • Maximum pressure placed on state sponsors • Clinton administration added corollary: US will aid other governments’ counter-terrorism efforts

    28. US Policy Post 9/11 • Dept. of Homeland Security established: Third largest cabinet department after DoD and VA • Incorporates existing agencies, including US Coast Guard, Secret Service, and INS • Coordinates capabilities of 22+ agencies to: • Secure borders, transportation, critical infrastructure • Synthesize/analyze homeland security intelligence • Spearheads domestic counter-terrorism efforts

    29. US Military Policy • Guiding principles: • US forces will continue to engage • Force protection will be a major consideration • DoD addresses terrorism from two distinct perspectives: • Counter-terrorism (offensive) • Anti-terrorism (defensive) • Intelligence critical component for success

    30. US Military Policy • Counter-terrorism • Offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism include Operation El Dorado Canyon and the GWOT • Anti-terrorism • Defensive measures to reduce vulnerability include facility hardening, setting buildings back from roads/parking lots, and limiting access to military posts

    31. Force Protection • Force Protection: Use of forces to protect resources and personnel with thorough force protective measures • Relocation of deployed forces out of heavily populated areas to an isolated base • Deployment of floating barriers around warships in high-risk areas “Asymmetric challenges can arise across the spectrum of conflict that will confront US forces in a theater of operations or on US soil.” (National Intelligence Council)

    32. Interim Summary • History • Definitions • Characteristics, Objectives, & Tactics • US National Policy and Military Policy • Future of Terrorism

    33. Future of Terrorism • Terrorism is a dynamic enemy… and is adapting to the challenges posed by developing societies • Groups like Al Qaeda and Hezbollah benefit from and are exploiting globalization, even as they fight against it • Terrorism is becoming more network based, encouraging loosely organized, self-financed organizational structure

    34. Future of Terrorism • International or transnational cooperation among terrorist groups is becoming the norm • WMD proliferation amplifies the danger of broad, network-based terrorism. • Terrorists increasingly display a willingness to use catastrophic violence to cause mass casualties and destruction

    35. Future of Terrorism • Other trends: • Intense motivational extremism • Flexible organization structure • Aggressive training to improve operational capability • Increasing exploitation of media • Increasing mass casualties and chaos through use of more advanced weapons “States with poor governance; ethnic, cultural, or religious tensions; weak economies; and porous borders will be prime breeding grounds for terrorism.” (National Intelligence Council)

    36. Summary • History • Definitions • Characteristics, Objectives, & Tactics • US National Policy and Military Policy • Future of Terrorism

    37. Questions? “We will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail.” —President Bush, 20 Sep 01