What is Terrorism? Terrorism actually comes from the Latin Word “Fear” • “The Unlawful Use of Force Against Persons or Property to Intimidate or Coerce a Government, the Civilian Population, or Segment Thereof, in the Furtherance of Political or Social Objectives.”(Source FBI) • Is an unlawful act of violence • Intimidates governments or societies • Goal is to achieve political religious or ideological objectives
Types of Terrorism -Domestic/National -International Terrorist Attack Methods: • Explosives and Arson • Nuclear Materials • Biological Agents • Chemical Agents • Using Technology as means
Terrorist Motives • Ethnic Cleansing • Damage Infrastructure • Disrupt Normal Life • Direct Kill of an Enemy • Undermine Confidence In Government - Requires Media Coverage - Should effect as many people as possible - Must last long enough to overwhelm (NYC) “Terrorism seeks to hurt a few people and to scare a lot of people in order to make a point”NYTimes, 1/6/2000
Acts of Terrorism in the WorldSeptember 11th was NOT the first act of terrorism • Using the FBI’s definition of terrorism, can you think of an event that occurred in history that could be called terrorism?
Acts of Terrorism in the WorldSeptember 11th was NOT the first act of terrorism • Terrorism occurs in many parts of the world • Some revolutionary groups in Europe have engaged in terrorist acts before (French Revolution, although different from today) • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his wife (lead to WW1). • Palestinians use it against Jews in Israel. • White southerns used terrorism against African Americans as part of their defense of white supremacy.
Terrorism Against the United States February 1993: World Trade Center in New York, bomb exploded in parking garage killing six people by RamziYousef and co-conspirators April 19, 1995: Federal Building in Oklahoma City –bombing by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols – killed 168 (19 of which were children); injured 100s more June 25, 1996: Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabi– bombing by Al Qaeda – killed 19 US servicemen July 27, 1996: Olympic Games in Atlanta, GA bombing – killed 1, injured 111 October 12, 2000: USS Cole in Yemen - bombing by Al-Qaeda, killed 17 sailors; injured 39
Terrorism Against the United StatesSeptember 11, 2001 • 2 planes crash into the World Trade Center Twin Towers • Plane crashes into the Pentagon • Plane headed to Capital Hill – Congress – brave American citizens tried to fight the terrorist on board; plane crashes in Somerset county in Shanksville PA • Nearly 3,000 victims • Al Qaeda members hijacked the planes – leader Osama Bin Laden – claimed responsible for attacks in 2004. • Why would they target the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and attempt to attack the Capital building?
Islamic Extremism Acts of terrorism committed by extremists who call themselves Muslims for the purpose of achieving varying political and/or religious ends. It is said that only 5% of Muslims globally are terrorists Al Qaeda global militant Islamist group founded by Osama (Usama) bin Laden. It operates as a network comprising both a multinational, stateless armyand a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad. Jihad:In western societies the term jihad is often translated as "holy war".Sacrificing one's life for the sake of Islam/God/a just cause" or "fighting against the opponents of Islam”. • Where are terrorist and Al Queda members from? ( FBI Most Wanted Terrorists)
Al Qaeda • Well funded group – wealthy • Global • Elaborate • Smart • Some Al Qaeda members work in business offices and are upper class members of society • Possible Nuclear Weapons? Not to be confused with the Taliban: Taliban-- > group of varying tribes mostly in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan – they make their people dependent on them purposely– attack US if we are on their land - tolerates/supports Al Qaeda (lets Al Qaeda stay and live on their land)
War on Terrorism The United States Responds to 9/11! The phrase War on Terror was first used by US President George W. Bush United States Homeland Security Implemented War on Terror “...is an international military campaign led by the United States and the United Kingdom with the support of other North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) as well as non-NATO countries. Campaign was waged against Al Qaedaand other militant organizations with the purpose of eliminating them.”
“We do not create terrorism by fighting the terrorists. We invite terrorism by ignoring them.” -GEORGE W. BUSH, speech, Dec. 18, 2005
War on Terrorism • The War in Afghanistan (October 7, 2001 – present) Armed Forces launched Operation Enduring Freedom along with the British Armed Forces and Afghan United Front (Northern Alliance) in response to the September 11 attacks with the stated goal of dismantling Al-Qaeda and ending its use of Afghanistan as a base for terrorist operations • Still ongoing • Homeland Security Created (2002) security efforts to protect the United States against terrorist activity • Iraq War: ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’ (March 20, 2003 – • August 31, 2010) • Talibans let Al Qaeda on their land • Thought Iraqis had Weapons of Mass Destruction • Wanted to liberate the people from Saddam Hussein • Democratic Elections held
United States Special Operation Forces • United States Army (Rangers, Green Berets) • United States Marine Corps • United States Navy (SEALS) • United States Air Force • United States Coast Guard • Intelligence Community Special Units (CIA)
“Nuclear Football”Also called Nuclear Lunchbox, President’s Emergency Satchel, The Button, and the Black Box • Nuclear black leather briefcase used to authorize the use of nuclear weapons • Used by the President of the United States • Guarded by the President’s assistant 24/7: Attached to their wrist. Five such assistants are recruited from Us Army and Coast Guard. Have to go through intense background checks – highest is “White Yankee” • Functions as a mobile hub in the strategic defense system of the United States
Guantánamo Bay “Gitmo”(In Cuba) • ‘The facility was established in 2002 by the Bush Administration to hold detainees from the war in Afghanistan and later Iraq’ • Controversial- UN and other global groups protested the legal status and physical condition of prisoners at Guantánamo. • Obama wanted to close Guantanamo because of the controversial human rights and possible torture occurring there to prisoners that may not even be terrorists. – Wants to have the prisoners have fair trail, that a US citizen would get -
Fighting Terrorism Today Death of Al Qaeda Leader Osama Bin Laden May 1st, 2011 Special Operations under President Barrack Obama – Navy SEALS • How will Osama Bin Laden's death affect the war on terror? • "One man does not make this war on terrorism," said U.S. Major General John Campbell, commander of the international forces in eastern Afghanistan. "They'll find somebody to replace him.“ • However, Campbell said the loss of bin Laden could hurt al Qaeda's ability to raise money • What do you think?
“Inside 9/11” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M-B6c6xxXug