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Indus River Valley Civilization

Indus River Valley Civilization

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Indus River Valley Civilization

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  1. Indus River Valley Civilization

  2. 2500 b.c.e – 1500 b.c.e.

  3. Ancient India “Isolation through Assimilation”

  4. The river valley civilization known as “Indus”, which is modern India, was diverse and influential on today’s society.

  5. Throughout time, India has changed the way people think throughout the world… …and because of its isolation, it created many unique cultural characteristics.

  6. The physical environment forced Indus people to adapt to a challenging natural world… • Mountains, rivers, desert, plateaus, plains, the sea, monsoons and changing climate • Results = • physical isolation led to diversity • Diversity led to unique cultural characteristics • This Indus culture would create cities and a civilization that would rival those in Mesopotamia or Egypt

  7. Mountains – Hindu Kush Himalaya Ghats Rivers – Indus Ganges Plateau – Deccan Coastal areas

  8. Physical features forced Indus people to adapt to their environments… H I M A L A Y A HINDU KUSH

  9. The mountains made natural obstacles to prevent assimilation, but people were able to find usable “passes” to gain contact with the Indus people.

  10. Kyber and Bulan Passes • These were the passes through the mountains that the foreign people from the west came into Indus lands and forced their ways upon the Indus people.

  11. The Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal allowed the Indus people… …to trade with outside cultures.

  12. Provides needed water for the people of ancient and modern India • Most populated areas of Indus/India • Transportation, trade, people, goods and beliefs

  13. Indus River and Valley

  14. The Indus Valley was an area rich in soil and provided farming lands

  15. Ganges River – central to Hindu beliefs, sacred usage for purification (Ganga),sewage and death influence

  16. More geographic influence… Monsoons – “rain, rain go away…” Sept to Mar (NE), May to Jun (SW) Rain For The Year Dependence

  17. The good and bad of the monsoon season

  18. Summer temps are blazing hot, Average 120 degrees… …and muggy... Winter temps are cooler

  19. …with humidity, comes bugs… • Mosquitos bred easily, carried and spread diseases such as malaria. This led to the creation of “preventive medicine”,as a means combating sickness.

  20. This isolation factor by the environment allowed the Indus people to be protected by the mountains and sea; but also allowed them to connect with outside societies through the “passes” and by the sea.Adaptability (with the environment and flexibility with outside influences) was key to surviving in the Indus and Ganges river valleys.

  21. Height of the Indus Civilization 2500 b.c. – 1500 b.c. The society that developed in the Indus valley did not happen much later those in the regions of Mesopotamia or Egypt.

  22. The earliest Indian civilization flourished for about a 1000 years and then disappeared without a trace. • Archaeologists have only recently begun to uncover evidence of these early people and their cultural characteristics, such as…

  23. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro: two of the first cities in world history

  24. What were these cities like? Characteristics they shared – Indus river valley, twin-capitals of Indus valley, large (3 miles across), hilltop structure, fortress, temples, huge warehouses, carefully planned cities (grid pattern), built with kiln dried bricks, modern plumbing (baths,drains, water chutes), sewers, weights/measures, organized, 10’s of thousands of inhabitants

  25. Farming and trade were the “backbone” of the Indus River Valley Civilization

  26. Most Indus people were farmers • First people to grow cotton

  27. Assimilation and the Indus River Valley Civilization • Covered a large area of the world • Influential because of multiple contacts with other ancient peoples over a long period of time • routes of assimilation

  28. Aryaninfluence on Indus people… • The Aryans were a warlike, nomadic people that transformed Indus society • Used the Kyber and Bulan passes • Migrated into Indus lands • Created many lasting ideas that changed Indus society

  29. Aryans – Where did they come from?

  30. Facts about the Aryans… • Forced conquered people and areas to adapt to Aryan ways, but were hesitant to change their own way! • Destroyed and pillaged the Indus Valley • Fought to maintain control of areas trade and territory