Indus River Valley Civilization
Ancient India “Isolation through Assimilation”
The river valley civilization known as “Indus”, which is modern India, was diverse and influential on today’s society.
Throughout time, India has changed the way people think throughout the world… …and because of its isolation, it created many unique cultural characteristics.
The physical environment forced Indus people to adapt to a challenging natural world… • Mountains, rivers, desert, plateaus, plains, the sea, monsoons and changing climate • Results = • physical isolation led to diversity • Diversity led to unique cultural characteristics • This Indus culture would create cities and a civilization that would rival those in Mesopotamia or Egypt
Mountains – Hindu Kush Himalaya Ghats Rivers – Indus Ganges Plateau – Deccan Coastal areas
Physical features forced Indus people to adapt to their environments… H I M A L A Y A HINDU KUSH
The mountains made natural obstacles to prevent assimilation, but people were able to find usable “passes” to gain contact with the Indus people.
Kyber and Bulan Passes • These were the passes through the mountains that the foreign people from the west came into Indus lands and forced their ways upon the Indus people.
The Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal allowed the Indus people… …to trade with outside cultures.
Provides needed water for the people of ancient and modern India • Most populated areas of Indus/India • Transportation, trade, people, goods and beliefs
The Indus Valley was an area rich in soil and provided farming lands
Ganges River – central to Hindu beliefs, sacred usage for purification (Ganga),sewage and death influence
More geographic influence… Monsoons – “rain, rain go away…” Sept to Mar (NE), May to Jun (SW) Rain For The Year Dependence
Summer temps are blazing hot, Average 120 degrees… …and muggy... Winter temps are cooler
…with humidity, comes bugs… • Mosquitos bred easily, carried and spread diseases such as malaria. This led to the creation of “preventive medicine”,as a means combating sickness.
This isolation factor by the environment allowed the Indus people to be protected by the mountains and sea; but also allowed them to connect with outside societies through the “passes” and by the sea.Adaptability (with the environment and flexibility with outside influences) was key to surviving in the Indus and Ganges river valleys.
Height of the Indus Civilization 2500 b.c. – 1500 b.c. The society that developed in the Indus valley did not happen much later those in the regions of Mesopotamia or Egypt.
The earliest Indian civilization flourished for about a 1000 years and then disappeared without a trace. • Archaeologists have only recently begun to uncover evidence of these early people and their cultural characteristics, such as…
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro: two of the first cities in world history
What were these cities like? Characteristics they shared – Indus river valley, twin-capitals of Indus valley, large (3 miles across), hilltop structure, fortress, temples, huge warehouses, carefully planned cities (grid pattern), built with kiln dried bricks, modern plumbing (baths,drains, water chutes), sewers, weights/measures, organized, 10’s of thousands of inhabitants
Farming and trade were the “backbone” of the Indus River Valley Civilization
Most Indus people were farmers • First people to grow cotton
Assimilation and the Indus River Valley Civilization • Covered a large area of the world • Influential because of multiple contacts with other ancient peoples over a long period of time • routes of assimilation
Aryaninfluence on Indus people… • The Aryans were a warlike, nomadic people that transformed Indus society • Used the Kyber and Bulan passes • Migrated into Indus lands • Created many lasting ideas that changed Indus society
Facts about the Aryans… • Forced conquered people and areas to adapt to Aryan ways, but were hesitant to change their own way! • Destroyed and pillaged the Indus Valley • Fought to maintain control of areas trade and territory