Indus River Valley Civilization Directions: Using pages 170-174 in your text , the attached reading, and your own knowledge, classify the information about the Indus River Valley Civilization (Harappan). In the first column list the FACTS that scientists know about the civilization and in the second column list the CONCLUSIONS scientists have reached. Words: suggests, think, must have, probably, concluded
Facts Largest of early civilizations (2500BC-1500BC) Developed in river valleys urban Large cities Harappa/MohenjoDaro Streets – checkerboard pattern Walled fortress Uniform brick Areas of large buildings Areas two storied buildings Bathing Facilities sewer system Fragments of cloth Farmed Figurines of bulls & women Clay Seals (carving pictographs) found in Mesopotamia Cities built and rebuilt over time Conclusions May have developed from hunting & gathering to agricultural Well organized gov’t with building codes – urban planning Harappa/MohenjoDaro Capital cities of strong empire Districts: gov’t, workshops for craftsmen, and residential Collected food as form of tax First to grow cotton/domesticate chickens Worshipped Mother goddess, cattle important Writing system to identify goods Traded with several civilizations Gradual decline: at first thought invaders NOW environmental changes - video
Roots of Indus Valley Civilization • Earliest civilizations in Indus Valley was discovered in 1856 by a railroad crew. • Harappa • Mohenjo-Dara or “Hill of the Dead” • Both cities shared urban design and architectural features. • 3 miles in circumference with populations of 40,000
Indus Valley Civilization • Vast territory united in homogeneous culture suggests strong centralized government, integrated economy and good internal communications
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa To the north is a citadel or raised area. In Mohenjo-Daro, the citadel is built on an architectural platform about 45 feet above the plain. On the summit was a huge communal bath. Next to the large bath was a huge open space—a granary where food was stored from possible floods. Fortified walls mark the southeast corner.
Bath area • Mohenjo-daro (2600-1900 BCE). Almost every house unit at Mohenjo-daro was equipped with a private bathing area • with drains to take the dirty water out into a larger drain that emptied into a sewage drain. • Many of these bathing areas had water-tight floors to keep moisture from seeping into the other rooms nearby or below.
This brick structure had a hole in the top that was connected to a small drain leading out of the base into a rectangular basin. Early excavators suggested this might have been a toilet.
A small well was located in the southeast corner (top right) and circular brick depressions were set into the floor, presumably to hold pottery vessels. The early excavators suggested that the room might have been a dyer's workshop.
The famous "Dancing girl" found in Mohenjo-daro is an artifact that is some 4,500 years old. The 10.8 cm long bronze statue of the dancing girl was found in 1926 from a house in Mohenjo-daro.
Writing • Indus inscriptions are found only on small objects, mostly stone seals and on pottery. • About 3700 inscriptions are presently known. • The inscriptions are all extremely brief, averaging not more than about five signs in a text. Longer inscriptions might have been written on palm leaves or cloth which have perished.
Assignment • Read pages 170 -174 • Complete page 174 #2, 3, 5 only
Dravidians: • people of Southern India who may be descended from the ancient Indus River Valley settlers
Aryansor Indo-Aryans • Aryan race Theory- discredited • Made popular by Arthur de Gobineau • famous for developing the theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races • 1850’s • Theories now discredited
Aryans: more correctly Indo-Aryans • Aryan race Theory - discredited • racial grouping • late 19th century to the mid 20th century to describe peoples of Indo-European Eurasian heritage • Derived from the idea that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendants up to the present day constitute a distinctive race • used by Nazis and others to support claims of supremacy
Aryans or Indo-Aryans • Migrated into South Asia from north of Black and Caspian Seas - Around 1500 BC • Sanskrit meaning “noble” • Tribes of the Indo-European peoples • Part of Linguistic family not a race • Nomadic herders • Skillful warriors: iron weapons, archers, chariots (possibly) • City-states ruled by rajah • May have contributed to collapse of Indus Valley Civilization
Influenced Indian Culture: • Long lasting effects of Indo-Aryans • village life • Religion • social structure
Village Life • Indo-Aryans moved across Indo-Gangetic Plains and settled into villages • Farming and herding • Value on cattle • The word for war meant “a desire for more cows” • Vedas: Rain is like cow’s milk and the sun is its calf” • Governing: Rajahs: hereditary chief – rule village
Vedas (Religious Influence) • oral religious traditions of the Indo-Aryans • 4 Vedas: oldest Rig Veda • Eventually recorded in Sanskrit • (written language developed by Indo-Aryans – basis of Hindi) • Basis of Hinduism (long lasting effect)
Varna (Social Structure) • Sanskrit meaning color – created a complex system of social order • Social structure and classes of the Indo-Aryans • Brahmins: priest • Kshatriyas: warriors • Vaisyas: land owners, merchants, herders • Sudras: servants, peasants (p. 174 quote) • evolved into caste (long lasting effect) • Caste: rigid system of social ranking by birth