I. Geography of the Indus River Valley 1. Geography A. Physical barriers such as the Himalayas, the Hindu Kush, and the Indian Ocean made invasion difficult. B. Mountain passes, such as the Khyber Pass, in the Hindu Kush provided invasion routes.
I. Geography of the Indus River Valley INDUS RIVER GANGES RIVER 2. River Valley A. The Indus and Ganges rivers are the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent
I. Geography of the Indus River Valley 3. Seasonal Winds A. Monsoon Winds 1. Summer winds (July-Sept.) from the SW bring large amounts of rain 2. Replenished the soil, but heavy rains also killed people, animals, and destroyed villages.
II. Indus River Civilization (2500 BC – 1500 BC) 1. Centrally Planned Cities A. Major Cities-States 1. Harappa 2. Mohenjo-Daro
II. Indus River Civilization (2500 BC – 1500 BC) B. City Design 1. A fortress, called a citadel, built of brick overlooked each city 2. Each city laid out in a grid system
Each city had a strong central fortress, or citadel, on a brick platform Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro
II. Indus River Civilization (2500 BC – 1500 BC) B. City Design 3. Used oven-baked bricks to build houses a. Homes had flat wooden roofs b. Some homes were several stories high 4. Sewer system beneath the streets a. Some homes had a bathrooms and garbage chute
Both cities were planned with wide streets, water systems, public baths, and brick sewers Ruins of Harappa
Storehouses for grain indicate careful planning and a strong central government Harappa granary
II. Indus River Civilization (2500 BC – 1500 BC) 2. Harappan Life (Social Division not significant in society) A. Most people were farmers 1. Grew wheat, barley, rice, and cotton B. Cities also had artisans 1. Worked with metals 2. Mass-produced pottery C. Trade 1. Traded with Mesopotamia as early as 2300 BC
Ceramic sculpture of a small cart with vases and tools pulled by oxen, from Mohenjo-daro
II. Indus River Civilization (2500 BC – 1500 BC) 3. Language and Religion A. Pictograms 1. We can’t read this
II. Indus River Civilization (2500 BC – 1500 BC) 3. Language and Religion B. Religion 1. We don’t know much about their religion (no temples or shines have been found) 2. Animal and human figures suggest Harappans worshipped gods associated with natural forces.
II. Indus River Civilization (2500 BC – 1500 BC) One theory is the Indo-Aryans invaded around 1500 BC and Took over the Indus River Area. 4. Collapse (Occurred around 1500 BC) A. Not sure why. Theories include: 1. Floods or Invasions from enemies