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Early Indus River Valley Civilization. Geography. Indus and Ganges Rivers Mostly the Indus, but the land extends towards the Ganges. Geography (continued).

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geography
Geography
  • Indus and Ganges Rivers
    • Mostly the Indus, but the land extends towards the Ganges
geography continued
Geography (continued)
  • Indian Subcontinent (India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh) are separated from the rest of Asia by the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayan Mountains.
  • Beyond the mountains is a huge, fertile plain formed by the Indus and Ganges Rivers (floods not predictable like Nile).
  • Monsoons dry the country in the Winter, and bring lots of rain in the Summer
geography continued1
Geography (continued)
  • Due to unpredictable flooding and monsoons, farming was far less stable
  • Cut off by the mountains, and desert to the West, but Indus River provided access to sea, and they actually traded with Mesopotamians
harappa civilization
Harappa Civilization
  • 3000 BC – 1500 BC
  • Ancient civilization
  • Little is known aside from archaeological evidence because their language has still not been translated (not much knowledge of origins, but modern traditions started here)
  • Major Cities were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
    • They had brick walled homes (sometimes 3 stories), bathrooms with drainage systems, and other modern advances
harappa continued
Harappa (continued)
  • Most discoveries were made at Harappa so it is often referred to as Harrapan Civilization
  • They were excellent city planners (which leads to likelihood of strong central government)
    • Streets on a grid system
    • Fortified citadel for major buildings
    • Residential districts
    • Plumbing and Sewage systems
aryan invasion
Aryan Invasion
  • Invaded around 1500 BC
  • Aryan – 2 possible translations
    • Literally “pertaining to ourselves,” and refers to the native people of Iran and India
    • Or “ar” as a root word for noble, or superior
aryans continued
Aryans (continued)
  • Developed Sanskrit (writing system) which is still not fully translated; so we don’t know a whole lot about them either
  • Started an education system for sons, led by a Guru (teacher)
  • India’s landscape is diverse. Many economic activities took place; mostly farming (despite monsoons), herding, and trading
aryans continued1
Aryans (continued)
  • Their belief systems and way of life, eventually morphed into Hinduism and Buddhism (we will cover the religions in more depth later)
    • Also earlier Harappan traditions were predecessors to Hindu gods, and there were signs of cattle worship
  • Caste System – 5 social classes based on economic and social position
    • Brahmins = priests, Kshatriyas = warriors, Vaisyas = commoners, Sutras = non-Aryan peasants, Harijan/Untouchables = slaves
theories of decline
Theories of Decline
  • The Harappan Civilizations declined around the same time as the takeover by the Aryans. There are several theories:
    • Indus changed course
    • Land was over used
    • Natural disaster
    • Aryan invasion