Stress • Wingate (1982): “Any influence that disturbs the natural equilibrium of the body” • McGrath (1970): “A substantial imbalance between demand (physical/psychological) and response capability, under conditions where failure to meet the demand has important consequences” • Allen (2013): “A physical/ Psychological response to a stimulus that evokes fear of failiure” Definitions… You need to find 3 separate definitions…
Definitions… ANXIETY ANXIETY Seen as the ‘Negative aspect of stress’… Is it more emotional or physiological? ANXIETY What does your description say??
Eustress/ Good stress Distress/ Bad stress Stress Causes discomfort and can lead to illness/depression Gives us energy and direction - Keeps us fulfilled and happy Stress is typically described as negative and is associated with a negative affect on an individual and their performance. But stress can also serve as a mental and physical energy to motivate us to do something and do it well (pre game???) Types of STRESS
Demands e.g an important race. Athletes Perception Of the demands Increased Arousal May lead to Outcome Positive (challenging) Increase in motivation and energy Enhanced performance Negative (threatening) Increase in anxiety and negative thoughts Impaired performance Woods (1998)
Trait Anxiety: - A person experiences anxiety as part of their personality. Feelings of nervousness come in a variety of situations… • State Anxiety: - Anxiety felt in response to a specific situation encountered. People with high trait anxiety will usually experience higher levels of state anxiety Types of ANXIETY How will this affect an athletes performance?
Divided into 4 categories: Internal- The things that we think about: past memories/experiences (how would injury affect motivation?) self worth etc… External- Our surroundings/environment, competition, weather etc… Sporting environment- Similar to external factors: the level of competition, bearing on the outcome, weather, pitch. Occupational factors- Our working conditions and the job a person does. Within a team it could be team mates/coaches etc… All varied to the individual How would Type A and type B personalities find situations stressful or not? Causes of STRESS
Cause of stress Individual view of whether the situation is threatening Stress response: physical and psychological changes 4 stage STRESS process… Positive/ negative changes in performance
Fight or Flight Response: - A stress response that varies depending on the ‘perceived’ threat. Physiological changes that prepare us to turn and fight the danger or run away as fast as possible. • Sympathetic: • Provide body with as much energy as possible to confront or run away from threat. • Releases stress hormones, cortisol and adrenaline… • Parasympathetic: • - Provides relaxation response and conserve energy after threat has passed. Physiology of the STRESS response…
Stress/ Anxiety has a 3 fold effect upon the body- causing COGNITIVE (mental), SOMATIC (physical) and BEHAVIOURAL responses. Symptoms of STRESS & ANXIETY
Cognitive and somatic anxiety levels may vary before, during and after competition High Cognitive anxiety Level of anxiety Somatic anxiety Low Before competition During competition After competition Time
Fear of failure: - Negative affect on performance? Place too much pressure on losing and forget about the process of trying to win? Nervous system: - Increase within the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight response). Loss of self confidence and concentration: Confidence correlates to positive performance, what happens when this is lacking? Negative mental state: Linked to confidence, what is it and how does it contribute to performance? Affect of STRESS on sports Performance
Fear of failure: Process of performance is forgotten and performer becomes more fascinated on directing behaviour to avoid losing, rather than successful performance to win… ANXIETY Decreased expectations of success: How does this affect performance… will performer try as hard to be successful if already in doubt of potential success? Affect of ANXIETY on sports Performance Loss of self confidence and concentration: Confidence correlates to positive performance, what happens when this is lacking?