Arousal,Stress, andAnxiety Arousal,Stress, andAnxiety
Is Arousal the Same as Anxiety? Arousal is a general physiological and psychological activation, varying in intensity along a continuum. Anxiety is a negative emotional state with feelings of worry, nervousness, and apprehension associated with activation of the body.
Defining Arousal, Stress, and Anxiety States Trait
Measuring Arousal and Anxiety Physiological signs (heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, biochemistry) Global and multidimensional self-report surveys e.g. Sport Anxiety Scale (trait anxiety) e.g. Sport Competition Anxiety Test (trait) e.g. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2
Trait and StateAnxiety Relationship High versus low trait anxious people usually have more state anxiety in highly evaluative situations.
Stress and the Stress Process Stress: A substantial imbalance between physical and psychological demands placed on an individual and his or her response capability under conditions where failure to meet demands has important consequences. (continued)
Stage 1 The Stress Process Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4
Stress and Stress Process Implications Intervene during any of the four stages of the stress process or cycle. Viewing stress as a process, not a discrete entity
Sources of Stress and Anxiety Event importance Situationalsources Uncertainty Trait anxiety Personal sources Self-esteem Social physique anxiety
How Arousal and AnxietyAffect Performance Drive theory Inverted–U hypothesis Individualized zones of optimal functioning Multidimensional anxiety theory
How Arousal and AnxietyAffect Performance Catastrophe model Reversal theory Anxiety direction and intensity Significance of all these views
Reversal Theory How arousal affects performance depends on an individual’s interpretation of his or her arousal level. Arousal can be interpreted as pleasant/excitement or as unpleasant/anxiety. Arousal interpreted as pleasant facilitates performance, and arousal interpreted as unpleasant hurts performance.
Anxiety Direction and Intensity An individual’s interpretation of anxiety symptoms is important for understanding the anxiety-performance relationship. To understand the anxiety-performance relationship, both the intensity (how much anxiety one feels) and direction (a person’s interpretation of anxiety as being facilitating or debilitating to performance) must be considered. (continued)
Anxiety Direction and Intensity Viewing anxiety as facilitative leads to superior performance. Some support has been found for this view.
Significance of All the Arousal–Performance Views**Arousal is multifaceted** Arousal and state anxiety do not always have a negative effect on performance— they can be facilitative or debilitative depending on the interpretation. Some optimal level of arousal leads to peak performance, but the optimal levels of physiological activation and arousal-related thoughts (worry) are not the same. (continued)
Significance of All the Arousal–Performance Views Combination of a.) physiological arousal and b.) arousal interpretation are more important than actual levels of each. It is doubtful that the optimal level of arousal is always at the midpoint of the arousal scale.
Why Arousal and AnxietyInfluence Performance Increased muscle tension and coordination difficulties Attention and concentration changes:Narrowing of attentionShift to dominant styleAttend to inappropriate cues
Why Arousal Influences Performance Attentional narrowing
Implications for Practice Identify optimal combinations of arousal-related emotions needed for best performance. Recognize how personal and situational factors interact to influence arousal, anxiety, and performance.
Implications for Practice Interactional Model of Anxiety
Implications for Practice Recognize arousal and state anxiety signs (feeling ill, dazed,muscle tension etc.) Tailor coaching strategies to individuals: Different strokes for different folks. Sometimes arousal and state anxiety must be reduced, other times maintained, and other times facilitated. Develop performers’ confidence.
Recognize Symptoms of Arousal and State Anxiety Cold, clammy hands Constant need to urinate Profuse sweating Negative self-talk Dazed look in eyes (continued)
Recognize Symptoms of Arousal and State Anxiety Feel ill Headache Cotton (dry) mouth Constantly sick Difficulties sleeping (continued)
Recognize Symptoms of Arousal and State Anxiety Increased muscle tension Butterflies in stomach Inability to concentrate Consistently perform better in nonevaluative situations