AROUSAL, ANXIETY AND STRESS. Arousal is a general physiological and psychological activation, varying in intensity along a continuum . Anxiety is a negative emotional state with feelings of worry, nervousness, and apprehension associated with activation of the body.
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Arousal is a general physiological and psychological activation, varying in intensity along a continuum.
Anxiety is a negative emotional state with feelings of worry, nervousness, and apprehension associated with activation of the body.
Physiological signs (heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, biochemistry)
Global and multidimensional self-report scales
State anxiety: “Right now” feelings that change from moment to moment.
Trait anxiety: A personality disposition that is stable over time.
High versus low trait anxious people usually have more state anxiety in highly evaluative situations.
Stress: A substantial imbalance between physical and psychological demands placed on an individual and his or her response capability under conditions where failure to meet demands has important consequences.
The Stress Process
Intervene during any of the four stages of the stress process or cycle.
Social physique anxiety
An individual’s interpretation of anxiety symptoms is important for understanding the anxiety-performance relationship.
To understand the anxiety-performance relationship, both the intensity (how much anxiety one feels) and direction (a person’s interpretation of anxiety as being facilitating or debilitating to performance) must be considered.
Arousal and state anxiety do not always have a negative effect on performance— they can be facilitative or debilitative depending on the interpretation.
Some optimal level of arousal leads to peak performance, but the optimal levels of physiological activation and arousal-related thoughts (worry) are not the same.
Interaction of physiological arousal and arousal interpretation are more important than actual levels of each.
It is doubtful that the optimal level of arousal is always at the midpoint of the arousal scale.
Increased muscle tension and coordination difficulties
Attention and concentration changes:Narrowing of attentionShift to dominant styleAttend to inappropriate cues
Interactional Model of Anxiety
Recognize arousal and state anxiety signs.
Tailor coaching strategies to individuals:
Different strokes for different folks.
Sometimes arousal and state anxiety must be reduced, other times maintained, and other times facilitated.
Develop performers’ confidence.
STRESS AND ANXIETY
Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Visualization and Imagery
Listening to music
Other positive methods?
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