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AROUSAL, ANXIETY AND STRESS. Arousal is a general physiological and psychological activation, varying in intensity along a continuum . Anxiety is a negative emotional state with feelings of worry, nervousness, and apprehension associated with activation of the body.

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Presentation Transcript
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Arousal is a general physiological and psychological activation, varying in intensity along a continuum.

Anxiety is a negative emotional state with feelings of worry, nervousness, and apprehension associated with activation of the body.

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Measuring Arousal and Anxiety

Physiological signs (heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, biochemistry)

Global and multidimensional self-report scales

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Trait and StateAnxiety Relationship

State anxiety: “Right now” feelings that change from moment to moment.

Trait anxiety: A personality disposition that is stable over time.

High versus low trait anxious people usually have more state anxiety in highly evaluative situations.

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Stress and the Stress Process

Stress: A substantial imbalance between physical and psychological demands placed on an individual and his or her response capability under conditions where failure to meet demands has important consequences.

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Stage 1

The Stress Process

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

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Stress and Stress Process Implications

Intervene during any of the four stages of the stress process or cycle.

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Sources of Stress and Anxiety

Event importance

Situationalsources

Uncertainty

Trait anxiety

Personal sources

Self-esteem

Social physique anxiety

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Anxiety Direction and Intensity

An individual’s interpretation of anxiety symptoms is important for understanding the anxiety-performance relationship.

To understand the anxiety-performance relationship, both the intensity (how much anxiety one feels) and direction (a person’s interpretation of anxiety as being facilitating or debilitating to performance) must be considered.

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Significance of All the Arousal–Performance Views

Arousal and state anxiety do not always have a negative effect on performance— they can be facilitative or debilitative depending on the interpretation.

Some optimal level of arousal leads to peak performance, but the optimal levels of physiological activation and arousal-related thoughts (worry) are not the same.

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Significance of All the Arousal–Performance Views

Interaction of physiological arousal and arousal interpretation are more important than actual levels of each.

It is doubtful that the optimal level of arousal is always at the midpoint of the arousal scale.

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Why Arousal Influences Performance

Increased muscle tension and coordination difficulties

Attention and concentration changes:Narrowing of attentionShift to dominant styleAttend to inappropriate cues

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Implications for Practice

Interactional Model of Anxiety

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Implications for Practice

Recognize arousal and state anxiety signs.

Tailor coaching strategies to individuals:

Different strokes for different folks.

Sometimes arousal and state anxiety must be reduced, other times maintained, and other times facilitated.

Develop performers’ confidence.

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INTERVENTIONS TO REDUCE

STRESS AND ANXIETY

Controlled Breathing

Progressive Muscle Relaxation

Meditation

Visualization and Imagery

Exercise

Listening to music

Other positive methods?

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IF THESE INTERVENTIONS

DO NOT HELP…..

MAKE THE APPROPRIATE REFERRAL