CESA 11: Turtle Lake In-Service Assessments and Leadership for Differentiated Instruction: Moving Your School/District toward a D.I.A.L. Initiative OR Sustaining and Embedding D.I.A.L. • Agenda: • Short review • Big ideas and essential questions • UbD & DI • Assessments • Grading • Moving through an instructional sequence • Leadership issues
Things We’ve Covered Thus Far • Definitions (of differentiation) • Context, Justification, and Controversies Interventions by readiness: • Sponge Activities • Anchor activities • Tiering • Think Dots and Cubing By learning style and interest • The “Profiler” (new) • Tri-Mind and Gardner • RAFTs • Choice Boards and Menus • KUDOs introduction
Things we’ll cover today: • KUDOs revisited • Essential questions • Grading for differentiation and GTs • An instructional cycle • Initiating and/or sustaining a D.I.A.L. initiative
“Sponge” activities are used to soak up down time, such as when students finish early, the class is waiting for the next activity, or the class is cleaning up or distributing papers/supplies “Sponge” activities
Transforming “sponges” to “anchors” An “anchor” activity is an on-going activity everyone is doing from which the teacher pulls students for mini-lessons
Using Anchor Activities to Create Groups 1 Teach the whole class to work independently and quietly on the anchor activity. 2 Flip-Flop Half the class works on anchor activity. Other half works on a different activity. 3 1/3 works with teacher---direct instruction. 1/3 works on anchor activity. 1/3 works on a different activity.
Sponges and Anchors • Describe: • Strengths • Weaknesses: • Application:
Meeting Students’ Readiness Needs Basic premise: students learn best within their “zone” (of proximal development, interest, or learning style) which may require pre-assessment (examples follow) Discuss: How are you doing it now? What problems are you encountering?
The complete question… • Before the last game of the basketball season, Fernando had scored a total of 73 points. He scored 20 points in the last game, making his season average 15.5 points per game. To find the total number of games he played, first find the sum of 73 and 20 and then • Add the sum to 15.5 • Subtract 15.5 from 73 • Multiply the sum by 15.5 • Divide the sum by 15.5
What might a beginning student understand? ______ the ____ game __ the ______ball ______, Fernando ___ ______ a _____ __ 73 ______. He ______ 20 ______ in the ____ game, ______ ___ ______ _______ 15.5 ______ ___ game. To ____ the _____ ______ __ games he ______, _____ ____ the ___ __ 73 and 20 and the_ ___ the ___ to 15.5 ________ 15.5 ____ 73 ________ the ___ __ 15.5 ______ the ___ __ 15.5
What might an intermediate student understand? ______ the last game __ the basketball ______, Fernando had ______ a _____ of 73 points. He ______ 20 points in the last game, ______ his ______ _______ 15.5 points ___ game. To find the _____ number of games he ______, first find the ___ of 73 and 20 and then ___ the ___ to 15.5 ________ 15.5 ____ 73 Multiply the ___ by 15.5 ______ the ___ by 15.5
What might an advanced student understand? ______ the last game of the basketball season, Fernando had ______ a total of 73 points. He ______ 20 points in the last game, making his season _______ 15.5 points per game. To find the total number of games he played, first find the sum of 73 and 20 and then Add the sum to 15.5 Subtract 15.5 from 73 Multiply the sum by 15.5 Divide the sum by 15.5
Tiering Common Definition -- Adjusting the following to maximize learning: • Readiness • Interest • Learning Profile Another view: -- Changing the level of complexity or required readiness of a task or unit of study in order to meet the developmental needs of the students involved (Similar to Tomlinson’s “Ratcheting”). Tier in gradations
Tomlinson’s Equalizer • Foundational Transformational • Concrete Abstract • Simple Complex • Single Facet Multiple Facets • Small Leap Great Leap • More Structured More Open • Less Independence More independence • Slow Quick Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals Directions, Problems, Application, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary Connections Application, Insight, Transfer Solutions, Decisions, Approaches Planning, Designing, Monitoring Pace of Study, Pace of Thought
Varying Journal Prompting in Health Keep a journal of all the fast food & soda ads you see/hear today. Categorize them by product brand and the appeal or hook that is used (ex. Pepsi, youth appeal). At the end of the day tally the number of fast food and soda ads. What ad technique is used most often? Why do you think it’s used the most? Which ad appealed most to you? Why? B. Keep a journal of all the food ads you see today. Categorize them by product and the appeal or hook that is used (ex. Pepsi, youth appeal). Analyze the techniques the advertisers use and determine which ads are the most deceptive and why. Then respond to this question: Is it ethical for an ad agency to market a potentially harmful product (a hamburger with 1,500 calories and an entire day’s fat content) featuring thin, healthy looking people? How is this different from the tobacco ads?
Tiering Think Dots/Cubes • Describe: • Strengths • Weaknesses: • Application: • Describe: • Strengths • Weaknesses: • Application:
Meeting Students’ Learning Profiles Basic premise: students learn best when allowed to create in their preferred learning style which means that several choices must be offered in terms of the process and/or product Discuss: How are you doing it now? What problems are you encountering?
Howard Gardner’s theory • Howard Gardner defines intelligence as "the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings" (Gardner & Hatch, 1989). Using biological as well as cultural research, he formulated a list of seven intelligences. This new outlook on intelligence differs greatly from the traditional view that usually recognizes only two intelligences, verbal and mathematical.
Gardner’s Intelligences: • Logical-Mathematical Intelligence • Linguistic Intelligence • Spatial Intelligence • Musical Intelligence • Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence • Inter & intrapersonalIntelligence • Naturalist Intelligence
What is “The Profiler”? • A way to assess and provide activities geared toward the different intelligence types/learning styles represented in the classroom • A means of providing students with connections to the working world, as well as with roles and/or audiences for their work • A tool useful for introducing new material or synthesizing previously learned material
How to Create a “Profiler”Assignment The teacher • selects the knowledge, skills, and essential understandings that s/he would like students to either 1) begin to explore, or 2) synthesize and demonstrate mastery of. Then • selects jobs/occupations that are associated with the different learning styles through which students could demonstrate this learning.
How to Create a “Profiler” Assignment • Examples of intelligence preferences and associated jobs/occupations • Visual-Spatial – Artist, Cartoonist, Magazine layout editor • Logical-Mathematical – Architect, Engineer, Mathematician • Interpersonal – Counselor, Tour Guide, Teacher • Musical/Rhythmic – Songwriter, Performing Artist • Verbal-Linguistic – Writer, Commentator, Announcer • Bodily-Kinesthetic – Actor, Builder • Intrapersonal – Poet, Songwriter • Naturalistic – Forest Ranger, Botanist
How to Create a “Profiler” Assignment • Remember that… • … many intelligence preferences overlap with one another, and • …most children have more than one preference;… • …therefore, it is not necessary to use them all! Simply select those that are most conducive to the demonstration of your learning goals. Lori Comallie-Caplan
?’s are more abstract Lori Comallie-Caplan
The Profiler • Describe: • Strengths • Weaknesses: • Application: Lori Comallie-Caplan
Robert Sternberg • Robert J. Sternberg is an American psychologist and psychometrician and the Dean of Arts and Sciences at Tufts University. He was formerly IBMProfessor of Psychology and Education at Yale University and the President of the American Psychological Association.
Analytical Creative Practical
Sternberg Intelligences • Analytical intelligence is the ability to analyze and evaluate ideas, solve problems and make decisions. • Creative intelligence involves going beyond what is given to generate novel and interesting ideas. • Practical intelligence is the ability that individuals use to find the best fit between themselves and the demands of the environment.
Analytical Thinking: Smart at School, Linear Thinking Thinking Skills • Analyze • Compare and Contrast • Evaluate • Explain • Judge • Critique Student Outcomes • Identify Problems • Explain/define the problems • Solve the problem, or suggest a methodology to solve the problem • Evaluate the effectiveness/validity of the solution suggested
Creative ThinkingInnovator, Outside the Box, What if? Futurist, Improver Thinking Skills • Design • Create • Invent • Imagine • Suppose • Consider Student Outcomes • Redefine problems to highlight a new perspective • Make connections between seemingly disparate topics • Identify and apply novel approaches
Creative Thinker Creative Thinker
Practical Thinking Street Smart, Contextual, Focus on Application Thinking Skills • Apply • Implement • Employ • Contextualize Student Outcomes • Use what is learned • Situate problems or tasks in the “real-world”
Three Minds are Better than One… • TriMind is a planning tool to use in order to differentiate for different thinking styles. • Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (see included slides) posits that people have strengths in one or more types of intelligences: creative, analytical, or practical. Successful intelligence is the ability to recognize which strengths we possess, and to steer toward careers/activities which require these strengths.
TRI-MIND Template Learning Goals for Activities: Practical Assignment Creative Assignment Topic Analytic Assignment
Add a “wisdom” question When possible TRI-MIND Template Why is teaching valued more in other industrialized countries? Improving the Teaching profession Practical Task: Convince your school board to institute an induction and mentoring program. How would you persuade them it’s worth the initial cost and maintenance? Creative Task: What are some better ways to prepare undergraduates for the teaching profession? Try to list several, and explain why each would be an improvement. Analytic Task: Why do 50% of first year teachers quit before year 5? Why do 30% quit after year 1?
Tri-Mind • Describe: • Strengths • Weaknesses: • Application:
A RAFT is… • an engaging, high level strategy that encourages writing across the curriculum • a way to encourage students to… ‒ …assume a role ‒ …consider their audience, ‒ …examine a topic from a relevant perspective, ‒ …write in a particular format • All of the above can serve as motivators by giving students choice, appealing to their interests and learning profiles, and adapting to student readiness levels.
A Different Perspective R.A.F.T.S. Role of the writer-helps the writer decide on point of view and voice. Audience for the piece of writing-reminds the writer that he/she must communicate ideas to someone else; helps the writer determine content and style Format of the material-helps the writer organize ideas and employ format conventions for letters, interviews, story problems, and other kinds of writing. Topic or subject for the piece of writing-helps the writer to zero in on main ideas and narrow the focus of the writing. Strong verbs- directs the writer to the writing purpose, for example to persuade, analyze, create, predict, compare, defend, or evaluate.
RAFTs • Describe: • Strengths • Weaknesses: • Application: