Evaluating Oxygen Dynamics in Lake Ballard: A Stratified, Brackish Lake - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Evaluating Oxygen Dynamics in Lake Ballard: A Stratified, Brackish Lake
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Evaluating Oxygen Dynamics in Lake Ballard: A Stratified, Brackish Lake

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  1. Evaluating Oxygen Dynamics in Lake Ballard: A Stratified, Brackish Lake OEAS 442 - Field Study II Fall 2010 - Spring 2011

  2. Participants • Jonathan Gamby • Robert Garnett • Cody Garrison • Jamie Thorpe Instructors Students Phillip Bailey Robert Bradley Eric Buzan Elizabeth Flanagan • Dr. Fred Dobbs • Dr. David Burdige • Dr. Richard Whittecar • Dr. Malcolm Scully • TA Meredith McPherson Acknowledgements • Hoffler Creek Wildlife Preserve • Chris Powell

  3. 2010-2011 Goal To assess the oxygen dynamics in Lake Ballard Determine physical and chemical water column structures What causes changes in oxygen over time?

  4. Historical Images • Resides in a man-made borrow pit • Excavated in the late 1970’s and again in the early 1980’s by VDOT to aid in construction of local highway July 1978 April 1981

  5. Background Information • Located at the Hoffler Creek Wildlife Preserve, Portsmouth, Virginia

  6. Background Information • Lake Ballard • A brackish, stratified meromictic lake • Two distinct basins: one being 3 meters deep on average, and the second approximately 13 meters at the deepest spot 3 m (~10 ft) 13 m (~43 ft) Allen, 2004

  7. Historical Data • Previous research conducted by field study classes during summer semesters (2006, 2007, 2008)

  8. CTD • Continuous measurements ofconductivity, temperature, depth, & oxygen sensor, fluorometer added in February Thermistor Chain • Continuous measurements of temperature in entire water column YSI 85 • Discrete readings of temperature, salinity, and oxygen • Usedin conjunction with CTD drops, and water sampling Methods and Materials

  9. Nutrient and Chlorophyll a Analysis • Standard methods were used for Nitrate/Nitrite, Phosphate, and Chlorophyll-a/Phaeophytin-a • Flow injection method used to measure Ammonium Methods and Materials

  10. Peristaltic Field Pump Li-Cor meter Plankton Nets John Boats Methods and Materials

  11. ANOXIC ZONE

  12. Overview 1 Hypolimnion remains anoxic year-round Density controls oxygen distribution • Ultimately, salinity maintains stratification. • Temperature affects dissolved oxygen concentrations • Total lake overturn is improbable • Density gradient is a barrier to mixing

  13. Overview 2 Stratification of the water column, nutrient location, and photosynthetic organisms can be used to explain oxygen concentrations • Phytoplankton location can be explained by light and nutrient availability as well as temperature and salinity gradients • Nutrients are trapped in the deep waters by the density gradient • Nutrient flux across the density gradient exists

  14. Ultimately, salinity maintains stratification.

  15. Ultimately, salinity controls density stratification in winter

  16. Ultimately, salinity controls density stratification in winter

  17. Ultimately, salinity controls density stratification in winter

  18. Location relationships between halocline and pycnocline

  19. Winter releases its grip • Thermocline rises, decoupling from the halocline. • Upper limit of the pycnocline follows behind. • Layer of trapped water between thermocline and halocline.

  20. Decoupling of thermocline and halocline

  21. Upper limit of the pycnocline follows behind thermocline beginning in the spring. April 4

  22. Upper limit of the pycnocline extended to thermocline. Sept. 20

  23. Wind Speed, Air Temperature, & Thermistor Chain Data Wind Km /hr Air Temp

  24. Weather Collected from Norfolk NAS/Chamber’s Field Weather Center via www.wunderground.com 10.6 km from Lake Ballard

  25. 36 cm net rainfall Drought

  26. Rain=36cm • Rate of evaporation for a 0.03 ppt increase=4mm/day • Amount of fresh-water necessary for a 0.26 ppt drop: • 30 cm 08SEP= 2.86 ppt 22SEP= 2.89 ppt O4OCT= 2.63 ppt

  27. Total lake overturn is improbable • Calculations using salt content and density led us to believe that overturn would not occur • November 17th density profile used as a comparison • Mixed layer water temperature set to 3.4oC • Salinity held constant in the surface mixed layer • Entire water column would never be isopycnal Hypothetical Profile Density (kg/m3)

  28. Total lake overturn is improbable • CTD Data collected through the winter showed that the temperature of the surface mixed layer reached 3.5°C.

  29. Total lake overturn is improbable • Data collected through the winter months proved that overturn was not occurring

  30. The Nitrogen Cycle

  31. The Phosphorus Cycle

  32. Nutrient Flux

  33. Density gradient is barrier to mixingOxygen only mixes from surface down to pycnocline Feb. 23

  34. Previous Studies’ Oxygen

  35. Similar oxygen maximum observed in September and quickly disappears

  36. In April, oxygen present above pycnocline and below thermocline April 4 April 4 Oxygen Maximum MOM

  37. Lake Ballard has a MOM? Metalimnetic Oxygen Maximum? MOM?

  38. Chlorophyll (μg/L) Li-Cor DATA

  39. Chlorophyll (μg/L):Oxygen (mg/L)

  40. November 10

  41. Chlorophyll (μg/L):Oxygen (mg/L)

  42. Chlorophyll (μg/L):Oxygen (mg/L)

  43. March 2