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Skill, what is it?. Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education. Skill Acquisition.

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maribyrnong college vce physical education

Skill, what is it?

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

skill acquisition
Skill Acquisition

Skill acquisition depends depends on learning. Motor skill learning involves a reorganisation of basic movement patterns. The coach tries to guide their athlete from the beginner stage through to skilled performance.

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

skill
Skill

An action or particular movement

How well an action or a particular movement is performed

Coursework

  • List 5 examples of skilled performers.
  • Define the word skill in your own words
  • Select a skilled performer in a sport you are familiar with and describe why you would refer to them as skilled.

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

skill vs ability
Skill is a learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty of results

Ability is the capacity of an individual to perform a variety (many) skills or actions

Skill vs ability
stages of skill learning

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Stages of Skill learning

The 3 stages of learning are:

  • COGNITIVE (understanding)
  • ASSOCIATIVE (practice)
  • AUTONOMOUS (automatic performance)
cognitive stage
Need to learn what is needed in order to perform a skill

Must identify the subroutines involved and their correct sequence

Exploratory stage

Beginner will make many errors

This stage usually takes a short time

The coach must;

Provide demonstrations or videos

Give a few clear instructions

Provide specific feedback

The learner must experience the ‘feel’ of the correct action

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Cognitive Stage
associative stage
Practice phase

Refine accuracy of performing the skill

Amount of practice will depend on the complexity of the skill, the player’s ability, past experience and motivation

Errors will decrease

Performer can recognise errors and make adjustments

This stage usually takes a long time

Some players may never reach the autonomous stage.

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Associative Stage
autonomous stage
Skill becomes much easier to perform

Players level of anxiety is reduced

Sequencing and timing of subroutines becomes automatic

Less likely to be distracted

Less cognitive control required

Speed and efficiency of action is increased

Performer can devote attention to other tasks

Can use feedback precisely

Relies more on internal feedback.

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Autonomous Stage
classification of skills

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Classification of skills

Motor skills can be classified into 3 types:

  • Discrete
  • Continuous
  • Serial
discrete skills

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Discrete skills
  • A discrete skill has a distinct beginning and end.

Eg. A football kick

continuous skills

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Continuous Skills
  • A continuous skill has no distinct beginning or end.
  • Eg. Dribbling in basketball, driving a car.
serial skills

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Serial Skills
  • Serial skills string together several discrete tasks to form a continuous performance.
  • Eg. The steps making a up a dance routine, performing a dive off a 3 metre diving board.
classification of skills13
Fine skills: involve intricate movements using small muscle groups, tend to be precise and generally involve high levels of hand-eye coordination. A snooker shot or playing the piano are examples fine skills.

Gross skills: involve large muscle movements, where the major muscle groups are involved. The movements are not very precise, and include many fundamental movement patterns such as walking, running and jumping. The shot putt is an example of a primarily gross skill

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Classification of skills
open and closed skills

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Open and Closed Skills

The Open and Closed Continuum

  • This continuum is concerned with the effects of the environment on skills - Barbara Knapp's open and closed skills also known as open and closed loop control.
the open and closed continuum
Open skills: sports such as Netball, Football, and Hockey usually involve open skills. This is because the environment is constantly changing and so movements have to be continually adapted. Therefore, skills are predominantly perceptual. The skill is mostly externally paced, for example a pass in football.

Closed skills. These skills take place in a stable, predictable environment and the performer knows exactly what to do and when. Therefore, skills are not affected by the environment and tend to be habitual. Movements follow set patterns and have a clear beginning and end. The skills tend to be self-paced, for example a free throw in Basketball, and serving in Squash or Tennis.

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

The Open and Closed Continuum
the open and closed continuum16

Pitching machine

Batting thrown by a pitcher

Batting tee

1

Closed

5

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

The Open and Closed Continuum

10

Open

open skills

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Open Skills

OPEN SKILLS ARE;

  • Performed in an unpredictable environment
  • Externally paced
  • Timing Depends on factors external to the performer
  • Decision making process usually occurs quickly
  • Team sports are generally more open skills
examples of closed skills

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Examples of Closed skills

CLOSED SKILLS ARE:

  • Performed in a highly predictable environment
  • Internally paced
  • Performer controls timing of the movements
  • Pre-learned motor programs are required
3 questions

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

3 Questions
  • Define the term "skill"
  • Using examples, discuss the difference between Fine and Gross motor skills.
  • Explain the difference between Discrete, Serial, and Continuous skills.
learning open and closed skills

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Learning Open and Closed Skills
  • Skills are rarely purely open or closed
  • Closed skills can be learned more easily because mastering of a specific movement pattern is required and repeated over and over in practice
  • Open skills not only require good technique but also flexible responses
  • Timing is externally paced and requires the performer to do the right thing at the right time.
learning open and closed skills23

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Learning Open and Closed Skills
  • When teaching open skills it is best to close the skill down first and then gradually open up the environment once the technique has been mastered.
  • Sequential skill-building and varying the conditions of practice are vital for learning both open and closed skills.
information processing

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Information Processing

Central

Nervous

System

Interprets, processes

and stores

Information.

Makes

decisions

DISPLAY

All the

Information (cues)

in the environment.

SENSES

Receive

Information

the display

including feedback

on performance.

FEEDBACK

Information about

your performance

Neuromuscular System

Executes and coordinates the

Performance of the skill

receiving information

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Receiving Information
  • Information from the external environment is received through the 5 senses and proprioceptors (sense of bodily movement)
  • Pieces of information received from the environment are called CUES
  • Irrelevant information is called NOISE
  • A performers ability to filter out irrelevant information and attend only to relevant cues is referred to SELECTIVE ATTENTION
signal detection

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Signal Detection
  • Determining whether or not a signal (that is ,a cue or stimulus is present
  • The ability of the sense organs to receive a signal or stimulus depends on the intensity of the signal or stimulus and the effectiveness of the sense organs
  • Intensity of the stimulus can be improved in the following ways:

Larger size

Brighter Colour

Slow object

down

Background

Colour

Different

Length of

time object

seen

Louder signal

Take away

interfering

Noise

More pressure

selective attention

Maribyrnong College VCE Physical Education

Selective attention
  • The ability to filter out irrelevant cues
  • This cuts down the amount of information that has to be processed
  • The ability to select only relevant cues depends on:
  • Experience
  • Quality of instruction
  • Arousal level