The Arab States After the war of Independence the Arab world is shaken by uprisings and revolts. Jordan - King Abdullah is assassinated in 1951 and replaced by his grandson Husseini. Lebanon- Prime minister is assassinated in 1951. Egypt- In 1952 the monarchy is overthrown in a military coup. King Farouk is replaced by Gamal Abdul Nasser.
Gamal Abdul Nasser Nasser was born in 1918. Joined the army in 1937. Participated in the first Arab-Israeli was aka the war of Independence. Helped lead the revolution in 1952 which overthrew King Farouk. Would go on to become an Arab hero before dying of a heart attack in 1970.
Moshe Dayan Born in 1915 in Palestine. Gained military experience in the British army and the Haganah. Lost his eye to a sniper in 1941 and would wear the recognizable eye patch. Would become the commander of Israeli forces during the Suez crisis. Would later serve as minister of defence in the 1950 and 1970s. Was a national hero and a symbol for the Israelis. Would become a key figure in the diplomacy and peace talks during the period.
Suez Crisis Oct-Nov 1956 Nasser orders the Suez Canal to be seized on August 1, 1956. British, French and Israeli officials meet in Paris to design an attack to regain the canal. Negotiations continued publicly at the UN to avoid conflict. However, the three powers signed the attack plan Operation Musketeer at Sevres on October 25. In this plan Israel would attack through the Sinai peninsula on October 29th. British and French forces would then intervene to "stop" the fighting.
Results of the war Isreal captured most of the Sinai desert and Gaza strip only to hand them back to Egypt. The Straits of Tiran were also guaranteed to stay open. Nasser became a hero in the eyes of the Arabs for standing up to the west. The British lost relations with many of the Arab nations.
The Six day war 1967 In 1967 tension were rising between Israel and the Arab states of Egypt, Syria Iraq and Jordan. The two sides were evenly balanced in terms of ground soldiers and tanks, but the Arabs had superior numbers of aircraft. In order to counter this threat the Israeli Air force conducted raids on the neighboring Arab states on the morning of June 5. By the end of the day, the Israeli air force had destroyed the air forces of the Arab States.
The Six day war 1967 Within 3 days Israel had forced Egypt to accept a cease fire in the Sinai dessert. The Israeli Defence Force(IDF) had captured the West Bank and Jerusalem within 3 days from Jordan. Israel then turned focus on Syrian forces on the Golan Heights on June 9 and Israeli forces took the Golan Heights within 24 hours. Shortly there after a UN cease fire came into effect.
Isreal before the war Held by Israel after the six day war
Results of the war After the war Israel had more then tripled in size and had become the dominate military power in the region. Arab leadership had been humiliated by the defeat. There was a rise in the discontent of the population of the Arab nations. The war drove the two sides further apart. During the war more Palestinian refugees to leave the region.
Resolution 242 Was a UN security council resolution which became the ground work for the end to the war. The resolution lead to the terms that Israel would return territory gained if the Arab states dropped claims to other territories in Palestine. Disagreements and the failure of this resolution would lead to future conflicts. Resolution 242.pdf
Anwar Sadat Born in 1918 Served in the Egyptian Army and was appointed Vice President to Nasser in 1964 When Nasser died in 1970, Sadat became president of Egypt.
The Yom Kippur war 1973 After the six day war Israel became a dominate force in the region. Israel controlled the Sinai Dessert and the Golan Heights. In order to broker a better peace solution and regain some of the lost territory, Egypt and Syria secured an agreement to go to war with Israel. Egypt and Syria planned the attack for the Jewish Holiday of Yom Kippur, one of the most important holidays for the Jewish people.
The Yom Kippur war 1973 On the 6th of October 1973, Egypt and Syria launched their attacks across the Suez canal and the Golan Heights. Arab forces had initial success against Israeli forces. However, by October 14 Israeli forces won key battles in the Sinai dessert and Golan heights. By October 27, 1973 an armistice was signed. The war would lead to future negotiations and peace talks between Israel and the Arab states.
Palestinians and the formation of the PLO Displaced Palestinians began to form their own groups and organizations. In 1954 the Palestinian group Fatah was formed with Yasser Arafat as its leader. Fatah established its headquarters in Damascus. Fatah used guerrilla tactics that they hoped would wear down Israeli resources. In 1964 at an Arab league summit, an umbrella organization was formed, The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO).
Palestinian attacks on Israelis Under the PLO and other groups Palestinians begin to use alternative methods other than conventional conflict. In March 1968, Israeli forces attacked the Fatah headquarters in the Jordanian village of Karemeh. Despite losing six times as many men as the Israelis the Arab's claimed the battle a victory. This raised the profile of Yasser Arrafat and Fatah. In September 1970 the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) hijacked five civilian airliners and landed them at Dawson's field in Jordan. The civilians were released on September 11. The PFLP then exploded the aircraft in front of the media. This lead to Jordan expelling the PLO and PFLP from its territory.
Palestinian attacks on Israelis At the 1972 Olympics in Munich a faction of Fatah calling themselves Black September took 11 hostages. All hostages were killed after a failed rescue attempt by the German army. In June-July 1976 the PFLP hijecked a Air France flight out of Athens and landed in Uganda. Where the Ugandan leader Idi Amin provided support and soldiers to the Palestinians. The Palestinians demanded the release of Palestinian prisoners in Israel and Europe. The Israelis sent around 100 commandos to Uganda to rescue the hostages. In the operation 3 hostages,1 commando, the 7 high jackers and 45 Ugandan soldiers were killed.
Attachments Resolution 242.pdf