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Introduction to Carbon Chemistry. D13 and D16. D13 - Explain how the structure of carbon affects the types of bonds it forms in organic and inorganic molecules D16 - Explain how simple chemical monomers can be combined to create linear, branched and/or cross-linked polymers.

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d13 and d16
D13 and D16
  • D13 - Explain how the structure of carbon affects the types of bonds it forms in organic and inorganic molecules
  • D16 - Explain how simple chemical monomers can be combined to create linear, branched and/or cross-linked polymers.
reviewing concepts
Reviewing concepts ….

What are compounds?

  • Compounds consist of more than one element bonded together.

What are covalent bonds?

  • The electrons are shared between the elements.
what is organic chemistry
What is organic chemistry?
  • What does the term “organic” mean to you?
  • In chemistry, “organic” describes a type of compound which contains carbon.
  • Organic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon.
organic compounds
Organic Compounds
  • Organic compounds contain carbon.
  • These generally also contain H, and often O, N, S and P
  • Currently, there are almost 24 million known organic compounds
where can i find organic molecules
Where can I find organic molecules?
  • Any part of a living thing is an organic molecule.
    • Even material which seems dead (hair, dry skin or fingernails) is made of organic molecules.
  • All of the food that you eat is organic, because we consume other organisms.
what are the unique properties of carbon
What are the unique properties of carbon?
  • Remember: Carbon has four (4) valence electrons, and can make four (4) covalent bonds.
  • Carbon atoms can form long “backbones” of large molecules.

http://www.svsu.edu/partnership/curriculum/univ/chem112/ch24summary.htm

http://physics.fortlewis.edu/Astronomy/astronomy%20today/CHAISSON/AT304/IMAGES/AAAKKIG0.GIF

what can carbon do
What can carbon do?

Carbon can form

  • Single covalent bonds (C-C) with 2 shared e-
  • Double covalent bonds (C = C) with 4 shared e-
  • Triple covalent bonds (C = C) with 6 shared e-

http://media.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2007/may/carbon/carbon400.jpg

hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • These are organic compounds that consist of only C and H atoms
  • There are three types of these
    • Alkanes
    • Alkenes
    • Alkynes
alkanes
Alkanes
  • These are Hydrocarbons where all the Carbon to Carbon (C to C) bonds are single bonds
  • Basic molecular formula is CnH2n+2
  • Name ends in -ane

Methane CH4 Pentane C5H12 Nonane C9H20

Ethane C2H6Hexane C6H14 Decane C10H22

Propane C3H8Heptane C7H16

Butane C4H10Octane C8H18

alkenes
Alkenes
  • Hydrocarbons with one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.
  • These have the general formula CnH2n.
  • Name ends in -ene
alkynes
Alkynes
  • Hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms.
  • These have the formula CnH2n-2
  • Name ends in –yne
saturated hydrocarbons
Saturated Hydrocarbons
  • Have you ever heard of saturated fats?
  • If something is “saturated,” this means that there is the maximum amount of hydrogen atoms possible in the molecules.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons are organic molecules which have three characteristics
    • All carbon to carbon bonds are single bonds.
    • They contain the maximum amount of hydrogen
    • All are Alkanes
unsaturated hydrocarbons
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
  • These have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms.
  • These will be:
    • Alkenes
    • Alkynes
organic compounds can take many shapes
Organic Compounds can take many shapes
  • Straight Carbon Chains
  • Branched Carbon Chains
  • Rings of Carbon
    • These will have “cyclo-”

in their name

carbon backbones
Carbon Backbones
  • Straight Chain – all of the carbons are in a single line
carbon backbones1
Carbon Backbones
  • Branched Chain – carbon atoms form branches off of the main chain
cross linkages
Cross-linkages
  • Chains of carbon (either straight or branched) can be cross-linked with other chains to form a net-like strong structure.
hydrocarbon varieties
Hydrocarbon Varieties
  • An almost unlimited number of carbon compounds can be formed by the addition of a functional group to a hydrocarbon.
  • A functional group is an “add on” to the carbon backbone
alcohols
Alcohols
  • Alcohols are hydrocarbons with an –OH functional group called hydroxyl.
  • NOTE – this is NOT the same thing as the hydroxide ion which is found in bases.
  • Naming alcohols involves adding an “-ol” ending on the hydrocarbon’s name.
alcohol example methanol
Alcohol Example - Methanol

CH3OH is methane with the hydroxyl functional group.

This is called methanol

isomers
Isomers
  • These are compounds that have the same numbers and kinds of atoms but differ in the way the atoms are arranged.
  • They will have the same chemical formula, but will look different from each other.
examples of isomers
Examples of Isomers

How many Cs and Hs are contained in each of these compounds?

One is linear and one is branched.

homework
Homework
  • Read pp. 197-204 in the textbook.
  • Complete homework worksheet as you complete your reading