Carbon Chemistry. The Big Picture. Carbon Compounds. Before 1828: Chemists believed compounds could only be divided two ways, into compounds they produced and compounds that organisms produced.
Before 1828: Chemists believed compounds could only be divided two ways, into compounds they produced and compounds that organisms produced.
In 1828: Fredrick Wohler produced urea. Urea was the product of him synthesizing an organic compound (urea is a product of reactions in the livers of many organisms).
There are millions of organic compounds and they contain carbon and hydrogen. They are often combined with other elements.
Diamond – drills & saws
Graphite – pencil lead
Fullerenes – help medicine get inside of cells
Bonus: Nanotubes– help wires conduct electricity
The Chemistry of Carbon - Learn 360 (12 min)
Carbon Chemistry - Learn 360 (43 min)
Hydrocarbons formed from plants and animals that lived in Earth’s oceans and swamps millions of years ago are fossil fuels.
Type of fossil fuel produces depends on the origin of the organic material and the conditions under which it decays.
droplets forming sulfuric and nitric acids
Like a drill with different attachments, a carbon atom in an organic compound can have four attachments.
The attachments can all be different but sometimes they are identical.
Freon: once used as a cooling agent in refrigerators and car air conditioners
Methanol: used in solutions for de-icing airplanes
Formic acid: in stinging nettle and produced by ants
The sharp, sour taste of a lemon comes from citric acid, an organic acid.
Consider freight trains…
Different types of cargo are transported in different types of cars
Like freight trains, some molecules are built up from smaller units linked together.
Apolymer is a large molecule that forms when many smaller molecules are linked together by covalent bonds. The smaller molecules that join together to form a polymer are monomers.
Polymers can be classified as natural polymers or synthetic polymers.
Monomers are the building blocks of polymers.
Mono = One Poly = Many
polymers (built from sugar monomers) are also classified as carbohydrates
Consider whale oil (and other animal fats) being used as lamp oil
As fats burn, they release energy in the form of heat and light and combine oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and water.
In lamps, combustion happened quickly but not in animal cells.
Some reactions in cells go to completion and some reach equilibrium point. Sometimes a catalyst is needed.
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are two processes that allow organisms to meet their energy needs.
but can’t produce themselves
replaced (Ex. Vitamin C)