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But only Hydrocarbon Derivatives are Abundant in Life. Hydrocarbons are Simpler. Carbon Chemistry. Carbon—Valence = 4. Representation: Ethane. Linear Alkanes:. Hydrocarbons & Isomers. Branching Creates Structural Isomers:. Structural Isomers = Same Formula, Different Structure.

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Carbon Chemistry


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carbon chemistry

But only Hydrocarbon

Derivatives are Abundant in Life

Hydrocarbons are

Simpler

Carbon Chemistry
hydrocarbons isomers

Linear Alkanes:

Hydrocarbons & Isomers

Branching Creates Structural Isomers:

Structural Isomers = Same Formula, Different Structure

“Methyl Propane” = “Isobutane”

double bonds rings
Double Bonds & Rings

Note that these all the above are different molecules

These molecules also all have different formulas.

geometric isomers
Geometric Isomers

Geometric Isomers vary about Double Bonds

There is no Rotation about Double Bonds

A

B

A

B

A

B

B

A

Geometric Isomers have same structure but different Geometry!

You need to break bonds to convert Fumerate to Maleate

These really are different molecules

enantiomers
Enantiomers

Chiral Carbons have four different groups around them and give rise to Enantiomeric Pairs.

Enantiomers: Same Geometry, Different Spatial Arrangment

hydrophilic functional groups
Hydrophilic Functional Groups

You should know the names,

structures, and basic properties

of the functional groups

discussed in your notes

oxidation of carbon 1 4
Oxidation of Carbon (1/4)

Increasing Oxidation

oxidation of carbon 3 4
Oxidation of Carbon (3/4)

As carbon becomes more oxidized the total energy associated with the bonds to carbon decrease

Roughly, a carbon-containing molecule becomes more soluble in water the more oxygens associated with the molecule

As organisms extract energy from carbon-containing molecules, they tend to remove hydrogen atoms and add oxygen atoms

Ultimately, a molecule that contains abundant obtainable energy is oxidized down to the most oxidized common form of carbon, carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide, which contains no readily obtainable energy, is released as a waste product (e.g., you exhale)

oxidation of carbon 4 4

O-

|

H-C=O

H H

| |

H-C-O

|

H

O-H

|

H-C=O

O-H

|

H-C=O

H

|

H-C=O

H

|

H-C-H

|

H

Oxidation of Carbon (4/4)

O=C=O

our first lab
Our First Lab

Please read the assigned laboratory exercise before showing up for lab; see laboratory schedule for the assignment

Ultimately you will be tested in labs on your knowledge of your lab text; the lab exams (2) will be open book

I am looking for a conscientious participation in lab in which you read and following the directions in your lab text; answer all questions except those I indicate not to (in lab schedule)

Don’t blow off labs; earning the points associated with the lab portion of this course will require that you successfully engage your brain, as well as your body, during laboratory periods

Our first lab, however, will be a particularly weird one, consisting mostly of my lecturing