But only Hydrocarbon Derivatives are Abundant in Life. Hydrocarbons are Simpler. Carbon Chemistry. Carbon—Valence = 4. Representation: Ethane. Linear Alkanes:. Hydrocarbons & Isomers. Branching Creates Structural Isomers:. Structural Isomers = Same Formula, Different Structure.
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Note that these all the above are different molecules
These molecules also all have different formulas.
Geometric Isomers vary about Double Bonds
There is no Rotation about Double Bonds
Geometric Isomers have same structure but different Geometry!
You need to break bonds to convert Fumerate to Maleate
These really are different molecules
Chiral Carbons have four different groups around them and give rise to Enantiomeric Pairs.
Enantiomers: Same Geometry, Different Spatial Arrangment
You should know the names,
structures, and basic properties
of the functional groups
discussed in your notes
As carbon becomes more oxidized the total energy associated with the bonds to carbon decrease
Roughly, a carbon-containing molecule becomes more soluble in water the more oxygens associated with the molecule
As organisms extract energy from carbon-containing molecules, they tend to remove hydrogen atoms and add oxygen atoms
Ultimately, a molecule that contains abundant obtainable energy is oxidized down to the most oxidized common form of carbon, carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide, which contains no readily obtainable energy, is released as a waste product (e.g., you exhale)
Please read the assigned laboratory exercise before showing up for lab; see laboratory schedule for the assignment
Ultimately you will be tested in labs on your knowledge of your lab text; the lab exams (2) will be open book
I am looking for a conscientious participation in lab in which you read and following the directions in your lab text; answer all questions except those I indicate not to (in lab schedule)
Don’t blow off labs; earning the points associated with the lab portion of this course will require that you successfully engage your brain, as well as your body, during laboratory periods
Our first lab, however, will be a particularly weird one, consisting mostly of my lecturing