Post WWI Revolutions OPHS World History
Russian Revolution: Review • Led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik Army they overthrew their government finally during WWI to end the war and changed over to a communist government! • Remember Peace Land and Bread…
Russian Revolution: Review • This of course is ended when Joseph Stalin takes power, making Russia a totalitarian state and he plays a GIANT role in WWII on both sides!
China • The Qing dynasty is overthrown in China! With a strong desire to modernize and nationalization KUOMINTANG (KWoh.minh.TANG) or nationalist party takes power 1911, like democracy. Its first great leader Sun Yixian (yee.Shyahn) However after WW1 the treaty of Versailles gives Japan previous Chinese land that Germany took.
China: May 4th Movement • A huge demonstration spreads to fight for the national movement and more power to China, however from this Chinese start breaking away from a democracy and favor Lenin’s communism!
China: Communism • 1921 Mao Zedong is part of organizing a communist party in China, different from Karl Marx. Lenin befriends China and actually gets the nationalist and the communist to unite for a moment-however a long civil war between the two groups does not end until 1949 with the Communist finally taking over.
India • The British Empire had control over India but thanks to WWI, nationalism grew in the country. When the Muslim and Hindu Indians worked together for independencethis upset Britain because they knew they would be harder to control now.
India • After WWI Indians thought they would be allowed to self-govern like they were promised after they fought on the behalf of the allies-NOPE • So they started to carrying out acts of violence against Britain rule, so the British created the ROWLATT ACTS: allowing Britain to send protestors/rioters to jail without a trial
Amritsar Massacre • The Hindus and the Muslim went to Amritsar tohelp a huge political protest (most did not even know they were not allowed). British open fire and in 10 minutes nearly 400 were dead and 1,200 wounded!
Enter Mohandas K. Gandhi • Gandhi preached about non-violence and urged Indians to use civil disobedience instead. This is when you deliberately and publicly refuse to obey an UNJUST law nonviolently. This is the man that INSPIRED Dr. King!! • Things such as boycotting British goods and strikes. • They even had a Salt March where they travelled 240 miles to make their own salt as oppose to buying British salt.
India Continued… • Even though they were arrested, beaten and tortured they remained non-violenttowards their attackers. • Finally in 1935 the British Parliament passed the government India Act and allows them to have limited control (not total independent until 1947)
Turkey • At the end of the war Ottoman Empire had to give up all their land except for Turkey. In 1919 the Greek attacked and under Mustafa Kemal Turks won and he became the first president in the new Republic of Turkey!
Persia becomes Iran • Before WWI Russia and Britain “had spears of influences” in Persia, since Russia was in a revolution Britain tried to take control over Persia. • This upset the Persians leading to a revolt where they took power in 1925 and was renamed in 1935 to Iran
Mustafa Kemal • He is known as the “Father of the Turks” because he gave them… • Separate Islamic laws from the nation • A new legal system not based on religion • Women got the right to vote • Programs to industrialize and to help the economy
Saudi Arabia • In 1932 Saudi Arabia was renamed and established as a more traditional Islamic region. Unlike Turkey who did not follow strict Islamic traditions and they did not try to modernize.
Oil Persian Gulf This area is now known as the Persian Gulf which holds 2/3 of the world oil!!! Long story short making them rich in the 1930’s when it was discovered and making other nation’s want this piece of land or at least to somewhat control it for the oil.