Post WWI Mandates • Mandates- A after World War I ended in 1918, certain colonies and territories • were taken from the defeated nations and placed under the administration of one or more • of the victorious nations. These areas were called mandated territories. The League of • Nations, a forerunner of the United Nations (UN), supervised the governing countries in • the administration of the territories. The League expected the governing countries to • improve living conditions in the territories, and to prepare the people for self government. • Britain received mandates for Mesopotamia (later renamed Iraq); Tanganyika (now part • of Tanzania); and Palestine. Palestine was later divided into Palestine and Transjordan • (later renamed Jordan). France received Syria, which was later divided into Syria and • Lebanon. Both Britain and France were given parts of the Cameroons and Togoland. • Belgium received Ruanda-Urundi. Japan was given German islands in the North Pacific • Ocean. Australia received German islands in the South Pacific, including the • northeastern section of New Guinea and Nauru. New Zealand received Western Samoa, • and the Union of South Africa (now called South Africa) got German Southwest Africa • (now called Namibia). • The mandate system ended in 1947. By that time, several mandated territories, including • Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, had become independent countries. The remaining • territories, except Namibia, were placed under the stronger United Nations trusteeship • system. The same countries continued to administer the territories, but they were under • the control of the UN. Namibia became independent in 1990
After WWI in both Africa and India a spirit of nationalism under the notion that Europe was not superior and invincible under the African National Congress And Indian National congress, Europe would double down under aggressive Policies which denied civil rights (Rowlatt Act and Apartheid), however India would See no hope in a sovereign future as Africa would be split into Mandates Under the league of nations After WWI both the United States and SE Asia would be emboldened by nationalist Sentiment after having won the war, both would suffer from the horrors of war and Influenza, however, the United States would compete as a dominant Western Power while Ho Chi Minh’s appeals for autonomy would be disregarded by the Paris Peace Conference In Russia and the Middle East, warfare would considerably impact human Demography and nationalist sentiments, however Russia would withdraw from War in 1917 signing the treaty of Brest-Litovsk and having a Soviet Revolution While the Middle East would be broken into a series of Mandates and an eventually Independent Turkish state. In Latin America and Eastern Asia the Global depression created a high unemployment and greater government Direction of their economies, however Japan continued to establish colonies under its co-prosperity sphere and acquisition Of former German colonies in the Pacific due to the Versailles treaty and Latin Americas ties to the United States Would lead to greater poverty while Japan would become the power in the East “Yellow Peril”
The End of WWI – End of Death? • War ends November 1918 • Casualties disrupt European societies- France & Serbia 10% • Spanish Flu pandemic 1918-1919 killed 20-40 million (more than Black Death) • US had over 600,000 dead, India 12.5 million • Flu most deadly ages 20-40 • Why did flu spread so rapidly?
The End of WWI • Russia embroiled in brutal civil war between Bolsheviks (Reds) and anti-Bolsheviks (Whites) • Britain, France, US, and Japan send troops to Russia – mixed motives
Results of Treaty • Billions in reparations • Occupation of Rhineland • Occupation of Industrial areas • Germany - Weimar Republic • New European states carved out of Germany, Russia, and Austro-Hungarian Empire
Post-War Europe • Wilson’s failure – League of Nations • League of Nations: • US Senate does not ratify Treaty • Wilson suffers stroke- power? • Italy- Libya and Ethiopia • Japan- Manchuria • Differences with UN?
Asia • Japan gains Germany’s Asian colonies • German Samoa taken by Australia/NZ • China declared war on Germany in 1917- gains nothing • Japan demands more from China- Nationalist Chinese making gains • Ho Chi Minh seeks Vietnamese independence • Self-determination only for Europe?
The Middle East • The Ottoman Empire disintegrated- New Turkish state 1923 • Arabs helped Allies in return for promises of independence- monarchies of Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Iran created by Britain • Remaining Ottoman lands divided between Britain and France • Balfour declaration (1917) gives support for a Jewish state
India (South Asia) • Indian troops saw action on side of allies in Africa, Middle East, and the Western Front • Hoped wartime participation would lead to self-government • British refusal to give up India led to rise of Indian nationalists (Gandhi)
Africa • Change of ownership of colonies • Service of colonial troops in WWI leads to demands for freedom • Rise of nationalist groups
The Great Depression – Laying the Groundwork (1920s) • War-induced inflation • Overproduction = lower prices • Colonial overproduction = decreased demand for manufactured goods • Protectionism: tariffs, closed markets
The Great Depression – Stock Market Crash • October 1929- NY stock market crashed • European loans called in • US & European banks fail • Investment funds dry up • Industrial production falls accompanied by unemployment and lower wages
The Great Depression – World Impact • Russia: • Communist Russia protected from depression due to isolation from world • Rapid, forced industrial growth (5 Year Plans)
The Great Depression – World Impact • Latin America: • Decline in exports caused high unemployment • Stimulated greater government direction of economies
The Great Depression – World Impact • Japan: • Dependent on exports to pay for raw materials • Severe unemployment (3 million) • Value of exports drop 50 percent • Depression increased suspicion of the West and spurred expansion into Asia to secure additional markets
After WWI 1918, in both Africa and the Middle East Mandates were established by the League of nations for the purpose of decolonization regions, both will see the rise of nationalism and a driven desire for more popular sovereignty, however the Middle East will see more progress due to its strategic location and resources while Africa will remain predominantly colonized due to racial ideologies.