Post WWI Era World History C. Simmons
Uneasy Peace, Uncertainty • Peace settlements created border disputes • Americans did not become part of the League of Nations • French demanded reparations- pay back costs of war • Economic Problems in Germany – led to Dawes Plan, loaned Germany money • Kellogg-Briand Pact – renounced war for use of policy
Great Depression • Causes: downturn of worlds economies in late 1920’s, collapse of U.S. stock market • Low economic activity and high unemployment • Governments did not how to fix problems, led to rise in Communism and dictators • The Depression challenged Democracy
Democracy after the war • After war France became strongest European Power • Popular Front Organization – collective bargaining • John Keynes – Keyneism, government spending (deficit spending) • FDR was elected in 1932, New Deal – plan to get US. out of Depression, achieved sense of hope, unlike European Powers
Discussion • How did Depression affect the World? • What caused problems after the war was over in Europe? • What did the New Deal do during the depression?
Rise of Dictators • Italy, Spain, Germany, and Russia – all major countries except Britain and France • Totalitarianism – control of all aspects of citizen’s lives • Communism in Russia - Stalin • Benito Mussolini – Fascism, extreme nationalism • 1926 – outlawed opposition, total control, except for Rome • Did not achieve total control like Hitler and Stalin
New Era in Soviet Union • Lenin created the (NEP) New Economic Policy in 1921 – half communism and capitalism • 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) • Joseph Stalin v. Leon Trotsky struggle for power • Stalin’s Five Year Plan and Collectivization – government took over ownership of farms • In 1930’s millions of Russians died (starving)
Authoritarian States in West • Concerned with preserving order, but not total control • Parliamentary government failed in E Europe – no tradition, illiteracy, and fear democracy leads to revolution • Czechoslovakia – only Democratic country in E Europe • In 1936, Francisco Franco overthrew Spanish government, began authoritarian dictatorship
Discussion • What happened during the Russian Revolutions? • How did dictators com to power after the war?
Hitler and His Views • Born in Austria, used racism as core idea of extreme nationalism • Fought in WWI, Hitler would later control the National Socialist German Worker’s Party or Nazi Party • Popularity, staged uprising was jailed, wrot Mein Kampf outlined ideas of expansion, anti-Semitism, and anti-Communism
Rise of Nazism • Nazism became largest party in Reichstag or parliament • Desperate for leader like Hitler • Hitler gained complete power by May 1933 • Enabling Act allowed Hitler to take power • Concentration camps set up for any opposition to Nazism • Hitler set up totalitarian state became Fuhrer (leader)
The Nazi State • Focus on the Aryan Race • Hitler believed in 2 prior empires or Reichs so Hitler called his the Third Reich • Nazis used the Gestapo (Secret Police) to control the country, led by Heinrich Himmler • Rearmament program, massive building projects • Nuremburg Laws – Jews lost citizenship, Ghettos • Kristallnacht – night of broken glass
Discussion • What was Hitler’s primary goal in building his empire? • What do we know today about Hitler that might could have stopped him quicker?
Mass Culture • Motion pictures and radio changed mass communication • Radios mass produced in early 1920’s • Movies came out before WWI • Used for political purposes • Hitler used radio to spread propaganda • Nazi party had groups of people that would make movies to help influence the masses
Leisure and Art • 8 hr workday became standard = more leisure time • What to do? Professional sports, traveling, radio, movies, shopping, etc. • Art had increase in Fear and Uncertainty • Dada and photomontage • Surrealism – reality beyond material world, dreams, fantasies, etc. • Hitler condemned Modern Art, promote Aryan race
Heroic Age of Physics • Newtonian view were abandoned • Einstein - Not everything could be completely defined and predicted • Werner Heisenberg – uncertainty principle • Subatomic particles are not predictable but instead random, challenged Newton’s ideas
Discussion • Why did people have more time? • What did Hitler and the Nazis do with the innovation of mass communication? • Why was the principle of uncertainty important?