Max Weber (1864-1920). Weber was born in Erfurt in Thuringia, Germany on April 21, 1864 He was the oldest of seven children. In college Weber studied law, economics, medieval history, and theology.
Weber was born in Erfurt in Thuringia, Germany on April 21, 1864
He was the oldest of seven children.
In college Weber studied law,
economics, medieval history, and
In 1893 he married his distant cousin Marianne Schnitger, who later became a feminist and author.
Along with Marx and Durkheim he is
regarded as one of the founders of
On June 14, 1920 he died of pneumonia.
Legacy of Weber:
Economically Determined Power
-- obeyed by personal trust in his revelation or exemplary characteristics/ qualities so far as they fall within the scope of the individual’s belief in his charisma…
Chief employs a bureaucratic system of rule; he himself is in office either by *election, *appropriation, or *succession. The officer under him must:
1. that of action to be specific traditions
2. that of action which is free of specific rules (i.e. the master is free to act on the basis of personal likes and pleasures- gifts)
What’s missing? :
1. a clearly defined office position
2. a rational hierarchy
3. a system of appointment on the basis of free contract, and orderly promotion
4. technical training as a requirement
5. fixed salaries
This is filled by an officer with charisma; not just any individual can fill this role; regarded as divine origin or exemplary status
I. determined by how the leader’s followers or disciples view him;
charisma is not the basis on the claim to legitimacy for this type of leadership, but rather its up to the followers to determine legitimacy or the genuineness of the leader- resulting in a complete personal devotion to the possessor of the quality (from either enthusiasm or hope/despair)
II. if his charisma, leadership, or ‘magical’ powers appear to have
disappeared, then his charismatic authority will
also be gone.
III. Charismatic community (the organization of the leader’s followers) is:
IV. this charisma is foreign/ independent of economic situations/markets- even though in some cases these leaders require material possessions from their subjects
V. because charisma can be born from suffering, conflicts, or enthusiasm, it can bring about radical change in central attitudes and direction of action toward different problems in the world
* he says Routinization of charisma (its downfall) takes the form of the appropriation of powers and of economic advantages by the followers or disciples; as a result, Weber says this randomization comes to be defined as the charismatic organization being turned into an everyday institution and putting it on the political level as having it be ruled by a ‘divine right’.
Characteristics of Modern Democracy
1. Principal of Official jurisdiction ordered by rules:
When these exist in a state it makes a bureaucratic agency. In a private economy a bureaucratic enterprise.
For the state bureaucracy is only fully developed in the modern state. In a bureaucratic enterprise it is only fully developed in a private economy.
2. Principles of office hierarchy require established system of super and subordination.
3. Management of an office is based on written documents. Official duty is separated from the private life of the official.
4. Specialized office management usually comes about through specialized training.
5. In a fully developed office activity demands the full working capacity of official independent of the amount of working hours.
6. Management follows rules which are mostly stable, exhaustive and able to be learned. One part of the special technical expertise of the official is knowledge of these rules.
Reduction of office management to rules is at the base of the nature of a bureaucracy.
II. Social Position of Official
a. Social esteem and convention.
The official usually seeks and attains an elevated esteem which is protected by the position of rank
b. Appointment vs. Election.
Election is not strictly bureaucratic. Appointed officials function more accurately because functional points determine the official’s career. Election endangers expert qualification and functioning of a bureaucracy.
c. Tenure and Inverse Relationship Between Judicial Independence and Social Prestige.
Tenure separates the official from the worker. Also guarantees strictly impersonal discharge of duties.
d. Rank as Basis of Regular Salary
Official receives salary and pension with old age. This along with social esteem makes position highly sought after.
e. Fixed Career Lines and Status Rigidity
Promotion and salary levels determined by fixed measures of seniority or examination grades.
a. Administrative democratization
Bureaucracy accompanies mass democracy which results
from abstract regularity of exercise of authority which results
from a demand for equality before the law.
b. Mass parties and the bureaucratic consequences of
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Wikipedia article, “Max Weber”.