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Cell cycle and cell programmed death. Haixu Tang School of Informatics. The cell cycle. The events of eucaryotic cell division. The phases of the cell cycle. A comparison of the cell cycles of fission yeasts and budding yeasts. The behavior of a temperature-sensitive cdc mutant.

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cell cycle and cell programmed death

Cell cycle and cell programmed death

Haixu Tang

School of Informatics

basic control system
Basic control system
  • A clock, or timer, that turns on each event at a specific time, thus providing a fixed amount of time for the completion of each event.
  • A mechanism for initiating events in the correct order; entry into mitosis, for example, must always come after DNA replication.
  • A mechanism to ensure that each event is triggered only once per cycle.
  • Binary (on/off) switches that trigger events in a complete, irreversible fashion. It would clearly be disastrous, for example, if events like chromosome condensation or nuclear envelope breakdown were initiated but not completed.
  • Robustness: backup mechanisms to ensure that the cycle can work properly even when parts of the system malfunction.
  • Adaptability, so that the system's behavior can be modified to suit specific cell types or environmental conditions.
checkpoints generally operate through negative intracellular signals
Checkpoints Generally Operate Through Negative Intracellular Signals
  • The Cell-Cycle Control System Is Based on Cyclically Activated Protein Kinases
  • Cdk Activity Can Be Suppressed Both by Inhibitory Phosphorylation and by Inhibitory Proteins
  • The Cell-Cycle Control System Depends on Cyclical Proteolysis
  • Cell-Cycle Control Also Depends on Transcriptional Regulation
two key components of the cell cycle control system
Two key components of the cell-cycle control system
  • G1/S-cyclins bind Cdks at the end of G1 and commit the cell to DNA replication.
  • S-cyclins bind Cdks during S phase and are required for the initiation of DNA replication.
  • M-cyclins promote the events of mitosis.
  • G1-cyclins, helps promote passage through Start or the restriction point in late G1.
intracellular regulators of the cell death program
Intracellular Regulators of the Cell Death Program
  • The Bcl-2 family
  • IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) family
the extracellular signal molecules
The extracellular signal molecules
  • Mitogens, which stimulate cell division, primarily by relieving intracellular negative controls that otherwise block progress through the cell cycle.
  • Growth factors, which stimulate cell growth (an increase in cell mass) by promoting the synthesis of proteins and other macromolecules and by inhibiting their degradation.
  • Survival factors, which promote cell survival by suppressing apoptosis