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Session 2

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  1. Session 2 Mechanisms Design and Technology PGCE

  2. Movement in Design and Technology • Structures and forces • Levers and linkages • Types of motion Design and Technology PGCE

  3. Structures and forces on them • Forces can squash, stretch and twist things • Forces can hold things still or keep things moving • Forces can make things move faster, slow them down or change their direction Design and Technology PGCE

  4. Examples of forces • Earth’s Gravity • Friction • Buoyancy in water • Air resistance • Moving air or water • Pushing and pulling • Magnets Design and Technology PGCE

  5. Levers and Linkages • A lever is a rigid shape which is able to turn around a pivot. The position of the pivot determines the type of lever and the effect obtained by moving it. • A linkage connects levers and other moving parts and transmits movement from one part of a mechanism to another. Design and Technology PGCE

  6. Levers GIVE ME A PLACE TO STAND AND I WILL MOVE THE EARTH Archimedes Engraving from the Mechanics Magazine, London, 1824 Design and Technology PGCE

  7. Types of levers There are three basic types: • First Class lever • Second Class Lever • Third Class Lever www.enchantedlearning.co.uk Design and Technology PGCE

  8. Levers • In a first class lever the pivot or fulcrum is is between the effort and the load • Second class levers always have their load in between the fulcrum and the effort • Third class levers have the effort in between the fulcrum and the load Design and Technology PGCE

  9. Task 1 Create a classroom resource that uses levers or linkages * Design and Technology PGCE

  10. http://ngfl.northumberland.gov.uk/dt/mechanisms/lever%20linkage.htmlhttp://ngfl.northumberland.gov.uk/dt/mechanisms/lever%20linkage.html Design and Technology Foundation Course

  11. Design and Technology Foundation Course

  12. Design and Technology PGCE

  13. Design and Technology Foundation Course

  14. Design and Technology Foundation Course

  15. Mechanisms and machines • A mechanism is used to convert between one type of motion and another • A machine is a group of interconnected mechanisms which convert one type of motion into a variety of other motions Design and Technology Foundation Course

  16. Progression through mechanisms • Wheel • A water wheel • A water wheel driving a machine Design and Technology Foundation Course

  17. Types of Mechanisms Some types you may find useful: • Levers • Linkages • Chains and gears • Piston • Pulley • Wheel Design and Technology Foundation Course

  18. Types of Motion • Linear • Reciprocating • Rotary • Oscillating • Intermittent • Irregular www.flyingpig.co.uk Design and Technology PGCE

  19. Design and Technology Foundation Course

  20. Design and Technology Foundation Course

  21. Design and Technology Foundation Course

  22. Concept Progression The children’s ideas and understanding should also progress through the Key Stages, for example • Early years Early ideas about balance • Years One and Two Exploring simple see-saws and understanding their movement • Years Three and Four Exploring and understanding a wider range of levers • Years Five and Six Predicting where to put weights to make levers balance Design and Technology PGCE

  23. Vocabulary The children’s use of technical vocabulary should progress during the Key Stages, for example: • Early years Heavier, lighter, hole punch, paper fasteners, joint • Years One and Two Weight, balance, pivot, fixing • Years Three and Four Hinges, joints, scoring, linear movement, linkage • Years Five and Six Load, effort, fulcrum, rotary movement Design and Technology PGCE

  24. Activities involving reclaimed materials • Sorting and shape activities • Experiencing different materials • Looking at manufacturing processes • Packaging • Making hinges • Creating large structures Design and Technology Foundation Course

  25. Reclaimed materials • ‘Junk’ modelling • Suitability • Comparison to bought materials • Safety and hygiene Design and Technology Foundation Course

  26. Task 2 Plan a classroom activity that uses simple machines or mechanisms Design and Technology Foundation Course

  27. Investigative, Disassembly and Evaluative Activities IDEAs involving two dimensional movement: • Look at playground toys • Investigate mobiles • Examine a selection of puppets • Investigate children’s books or greetings cards • Consider simple household machines Design and Technology PGCE

  28. Focused Practical Tasks FPTs involving two dimensional movement: • Make jointed models using construction kits • Create jointed figures in cardboard • Use levers and linkages • Make simple sliding mechanisms • Try some balancing activities Design and Technology PGCE

  29. Design and make activities DMAs using two dimensional movement: • Make moving puppets for a show • Create a children’s playground for a toy • Make a mobile for the classroom • Make moving toys to play with • Create a class storybook with moving parts Design and Technology PGCE

  30. Safety Issues • Classroom organisation • Supervision • Tool safety • Risk assessment on any school visits Design and Technology PGCE