CH. 6 Nonverbal Communication. ▪ Defined: Communication without words , or “…messages expressed by nonlinguistic means .” p. 147 ▪ A difference exists between vocal (by mouth) & verbal (with words) communication . ▪ “What we do often conveys more meaning than
▪ Defined: Communication without words, or
“…messages expressed by nonlinguistic means.” p. 147
▪ A difference exists between vocal (by mouth) &
verbal (with words) communication.
▪ “What we do often conveys more meaning than
what we say.” p. 147 (KNOW THIS!)
▪ NV elements affect our perception of a message.
1) All NV behavior has communicative value
2) NV Communication is primarily relational
3) NV Communication is ambiguous
4) NV Communication is influenced by culture
*** Skilled Communicators adapt. when with other cultures or co-cultures
1) Creating & maintaining relationships
2) Regulating Interaction
“Regulators” are cues helping to control interaction.
*Eye contact : regulates who is expected to respond
*Changes in intonation at the end of a clause
*Drop in pitch/volume at end of common phrase
*Drawing out last or stressed syllable in a clause
It takes children (or adults) time to learn to avoid interrupting
3) Influencing Others
▪ Majority of messages exchanged = not completely truthful!
5) ManagingIdentity = getting others to see us as we want to be seen
1) Face & eyes: not the easiest to read; complicated channel to interpret
● Kinesics: study of communication through bodily action. (The right kinds of gestures can increase persuasiveness.-hand & arm moves)
● Posture: many phrases tied to emotion & posture
● Gestures: fundamental! Some social scientists say =1st language.
Can be intentional or not, ambiguous or not (emblems)
. Used to measure power & status. (Pointing may indicate higher status.)
-- If sender & receiver have reasonably similar status, reciprocating gestures not a problem, but if a very different status, it may create a problem.
▪ Manipulators- fidgeting (group of ambiguous gestures) may be sign of discomfort, but not always (twirling hair).
patients= improves health & well-being)
●Influences how we respond to others:
Paralanguage: the way a message is spoken
▪Young children, poor listeners, the brain damaged, and those with weak intellectual skills may not “get” sarcasctic content.
Proxemics is the study of how using, organizing & perceiving space and distance affect communication.
communication is almost impossible.)
Invasions: we use barriers if uncomfortable-move, place objects, give less eye contact or physical cues, & leave.
Chronemics: the study of how we use and structure time
● The more status, the more time may matter.
●Can send intentional & unintentional messages
● Importance of time is affected by culture.
● Sometimes geographic areas affect (NY or Salt Lake City)
● Persons sometimes establish own rules.
● Health can affect time perception. (ADHD may affect)
Clothing does communicate!
attire affected perception of honesty. (Vrij & Akehurst, ‘99)
Physical setting, architecture, and interior design affect communication.
● We create environments which communicate comfort or discomfort to guests.
-- Some homes more comfortable than others: “unliving
rooms”. (Knapp and Hall 2006)