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CH. 6 Nonverbal Communication. ▪ Defined: Communication without words , or “…messages expressed by nonlinguistic means .” p. 147 ▪ A difference exists between vocal (by mouth) & verbal (with words) communication . ▪ “What we do often conveys more meaning than

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ch 6 nonverbal communication

CH. 6 Nonverbal Communication

▪ Defined: Communication without words, or

“…messages expressed by nonlinguistic means.” p. 147

▪ A difference exists between vocal (by mouth) &

verbal (with words) communication.

▪ “What we do often conveys more meaning than

what we say.” p. 147 (KNOW THIS!)

▪ NV elements affect our perception of a message.

4 nonverbal characteristics
4 Nonverbal Characteristics

1) All NV behavior has communicative value

  • Whether or not we intend it
  • Men not as strong in recognizing NV messages

2) NV Communication is primarily relational

  • Both utilitarian (direct traffic) & social functions
  • Helps define the kind of relationship wanted
  • CMC uses emoticons to simulate NVC
  • NVC also conveys emotions (aware or not)

3) NV Communication is ambiguous

  • Usually more ambiguous than verbal & can be misinterpreted
  • In-groups are more accurate recognizing NV emotional display
  • Be sure to perception check! Cognitive complexity helps decode.

4) NV Communication is influenced by culture

  • Emblems: culturally understood substitutes for verbal expression
  • Meanings of gestures can vary culture to culture.
  • Some are universal (laughter) but cultural display rules may prevent showing openly

*** Skilled Communicators adapt. when with other cultures or co-cultures

5 nv functions
5 NV Functions:

1) Creating & maintaining relationships

  • Amount & coordination of ongoing touch = a strong measure of commitment.
  • In Families: NV cues tell relationship satisfaction and who controls interaction & decision-making.
  • Facial expression, eye contact, posture, gestures, & tone of voice are observed in seconds.
  • Use perception-checking to be safe if moving closer!
nv functions cont
NV Functions, cont.

2) Regulating Interaction

“Regulators” are cues helping to control interaction.

*Eye contact : regulates who is expected to respond

*Changes in intonation at the end of a clause

*Drop in pitch/volume at end of common phrase

*Drawing out last or stressed syllable in a clause

It takes children (or adults) time to learn to avoid interrupting

nv functions cont1
NV Functions, cont.

3) Influencing Others

  • Deliberately or not, we sometimes use NVC to get others to satisfy our wants and needs. (boss/worker, male/female)
  • The way we act or dress can get attention, show more /less liking, power, and credibility.
nv functions cont2
NV Functions, cont.

4) Concealing/Deceiving

▪ Majority of messages exchanged = not completely truthful!

  • But, not all deception is self-serving or malicious.
    • Saving face for self or others
  • High self-monitors are better at hiding deception.
    • Less-than-honest clues: more speech errors, pitch rises more when lying, more hesitation when lying.
    • Kids use words but adults use NVC to form impressions.
    • Avoid jumping to conclusions with limited information.
      • Take days, weeks or longer to form a conclusion. Think!
nv function cont
NV Function, cont.

5) ManagingIdentity = getting others to see us as we want to be seen

  • We manage impressions NV in ways we hope will create a certain impression.
    • Manner: the way we act (interview vs. casual talk
    • Appearance: clothing, artifacts worn, perfume, hair, makeup, etc. (dress as you wish to be remembered but comfortably and confidently)
    • Setting: physical items we put in our surroundings what we put on walls, colors, home, car etc.
10 types of nv communication
10 Types of NV Communication

1) Face & eyes: not the easiest to read; complicated channel to interpret

  • many muscles and each part of the face can have many expressions
  • gazing-usually interest or liking
    • Type of interest varies
  • Eye contact=interest, liking, turn-taking, or noticing
    • not always approval or attraction<police, teacher, parent, supervisor>
nv type 2 body movement
NV Type: #2 Body Movement
  • Body Movement

● Kinesics: study of communication through bodily action. (The right kinds of gestures can increase persuasiveness.-hand & arm moves)

● Posture: many phrases tied to emotion & posture

    • Look for small changes to see how others feel –shifts in posture.

● Gestures: fundamental! Some social scientists say =1st language.

Can be intentional or not, ambiguous or not (emblems)

. Used to measure power & status. (Pointing may indicate higher status.)

-- If sender & receiver have reasonably similar status, reciprocating gestures not a problem, but if a very different status, it may create a problem.

▪ Manipulators- fidgeting (group of ambiguous gestures) may be sign of discomfort, but not always (twirling hair).

Body Movement

nv type 3 touch
NV Type #3: Touch
  • Touch =Haptics: the study of touching●Valuable for us: for infants, preemies, cancer and HIV

patients= improves health & well-being)

●Influences how we respond to others:

    • Can increase liking
    • Can boost compliance (return the coin story: when touched on arm, more returned it)
    • On-the-job utility: bigger tips, more alcohol ordered
    • Legal actions for unwanted touching (women generally more comfortable than men about some touching)
    • Degree of touch goes along with interpersonal style and satisfactory relationships
    • Amount of touching usually decreases with age.
      • In school (kid to kid)- higher elementary grades touch less
      • Parent to child-older ones are touched less. (in general)
      • Later, more touching with a chosen partner.
nvc 4 voice
NVC #4: VOICE

Paralanguage: the way a message is spoken

  • Older children & adults have more NV cue sensitivity than children 3-5.

▪Young children, poor listeners, the brain damaged, and those with weak intellectual skills may not “get” sarcasctic content.

  • We pay more attention to paralanguage than content.
    • A change in one cue can change a meaning: rate, pitch, tone, volume, and emphasis of words.
    • Rate affects perception of others: We perceive speakers w/slower speech as having more conversational control.
    • Communicators with same rate get more compliance when a request is made.
    • Attractive voices are rated more highly.
  • Pauses : length as well as disfluencies (vocal pauses) can seem to contradict content
type of nv 5 proxemics
Type of NV #5: Proxemics

Proxemics is the study of how using, organizing & perceiving space and distance affect communication.

  • Personal space- the invisible bubble of space around us, giving a nonverbal clue to our feelings. It has 4 zones:
    • Intimate Zone: contact – about 18” (trust)
    • Personal Zone: 18” -4’ (close, but less personal)
    • Social Zone: 4’-12’ (distance can affect on how we respond to others)
    • Public Zone: 12’ and out. (If 25’ or more, 2-way

communication is almost impossible.)

Invasions: we use barriers if uncomfortable-move, place objects, give less eye contact or physical cues, & leave.

nv type 6 territoriality
NV TYPE #6: Territoriality
  • Territory remains stationary (unlike personal bubbles we carry as extensions of ourselves).
  • But we may try to create it. (In a library, when we want to be alone, we sit as far apart as possible.)
  • We give cues to others who invade what we think is “our” territory.
  • Response to invasion depends on who enters, why, what territory, and how it’s invaded.
  • Is it a slight invasion or a serious violation?
nv type 7 time
NV TYPE #7: TIME

Chronemics: the study of how we use and structure time

● The more status, the more time may matter.

  • Low status persons don’t make higher status ones wait! Appt. needed for “important” persons.

●Can send intentional & unintentional messages

● Importance of time is affected by culture.

● Sometimes geographic areas affect (NY or Salt Lake City)

● Persons sometimes establish own rules.

● Health can affect time perception. (ADHD may affect)

nv type 8 physical attractiveness
NV Type #8: Physical Attractiveness
  • Physical attractiveness affects interaction.
  • Attractive men and women seen as more sensitive, kind, strong, sociable and interesting.
    • Women perceived as more attractive get lighter court sentences (Knapp & Hall 2006)
  • It begins early (even in preschool).
    • Teachers & parents may be affected but not always.
  • As we get to know persons, we regard them as more attractive because how they use what they have affects attractiveness.
    • Posture, gestures, facial expression, clothing, etc.
nv type 9 clothing
NV TYPE #9: Clothing

Clothing does communicate!

  • We make assumptions based on clothing, so make judgments carefully!
  • The way you dress affects your credibility. Victim

attire affected perception of honesty. (Vrij & Akehurst, ‘99)

  • Men’s clothing may give more cues to status, but women’s behavior gives more clues to status. (Mast & Hall, ‘04)
  • Study showed passersby react more favorably to well-dressed couple than a casually-dressed one. (Fortenberry, et al, ‘78)
nv type 10 physical environment
NV TYPE#10: Physical Environment

Physical setting, architecture, and interior design affect communication.

● We create environments which communicate comfort or discomfort to guests.

-- Some homes more comfortable than others: “unliving

rooms”. (Knapp and Hall 2006)

  • Environmental design can shape the interaction in it.
    • Barren environments had more aggression/violence and mental fatigue than buildings with nearby grass and trees. (Kuo and Sulllivan 2001)
    • Placement of furniture (Dr. office, convalescent ward) can increase interaction and comfort.