Nonverbal Communication Muhammad Ayub Attari Course Coordinator
What Does It Mean? Too often we underestimate the power of a touch, a smile, a kind word, a listening ear, an honest compliment, or the smallest act of caring, all of which have potential to turn a life around. Leo Buscaqlia
Categories of Communication • Verbal communication, in which you listen to persons to understand their meaning. • Written communication, in which you read their meaning. • Nonverbal communication(NVC), in which you observe a person and infer meaning.
What is Nonverbal Communication? No one definition Dr. A. O’Brien
Verbal and Nonverbal are so intertwined that there’s a fuzzy line between them.
The idea is… there are categories of communication that overlap some aspects of each other.
It’s not as simple as: WORDS NO WORDS
Pioneer in nonverbal researchRay Birdwhistell Defines nonverbal communication • ... the signals to which meaning will be attributed
Some More Definitions Of NVC Non-verbal communication consists of the feelings or emotions we convey behind the words we speak verbally
Definitions NVC “Transmission of messages by a medium other than speech or writing” (Non-verbal communication, 2011).
Definitions of NVC “Non-verbal communication includes pitch, speed, tone and volume of voice; gestures and facial expressions; body posture, stance, and proximity to the listener; eye movements and contact; and dress and appearance” (Non-verbal communication, 2011).
A Strange Truth According to one study, only 7% of a Receiver’s comprehension of a Message is based on the Sender’s actual words; 38% is based on paralanguage (the tone, pace, and volume of speech), and 55% is based on nonverbal cues (body language).
Note: • some sounds are not vocal, • e.g., snapping one’s fingers, stamping a foot • …nv includes vocal and nonvocal phenomena
Also other vocal phenomena • more sounds than words e.g., zap...buzz
Categorizes implicit or non verbal behavior • Immediacy • Status • Responsiveness
Body Motion (Kinesic Gestures) Movements of the: • Body • Limbs • Head • feet and legs • facial expressions • eye behavior • posture
Some movements provide information about emotions • Some give info about personality traits or attitude
Ekman & Friesen Classification of nonverbal acts
Emblems • symbol: something that visually symbolizes an object, idea, group. • nonverbal acts with • a direct verbal translation • a word or two or a phrase... generally culture specific
Emblems • Thumbs up OK • V with fingers peace • Finger pointed to temple suicide • Hand grasping throat choke • hand to mouth eating • tilt head, eyes closed sleeping
Use of Emblems (a) • Insults • Directions come go stop slow down • Greetings • Departures
Use of Emblems (b) selected responses to questions yes no maybe I don’t knowphysical stateemotion triumphant angry sad
Part of body associated with emblems • Often the hands... but not exclusively • Nose wrinkle Disgust • Drop of the jaw and exaggeratedraising of the eyebrows Surprise • Upturned palms, shrugged shoulders Uncertainty
Use of Emblems 1 • When verbal channels of communication are blocked • Sign language of the deaf • Gestures used by television production personnel • Gestures used by team
Use of Emblems 2 • Signs between two underwater swimmers. • Motions made by people too far apart to hear each other well. • We choose emblems the way we choose words • We don’t think very much about it. • We generally don’t string emblems together.
Illustrators • directly tied to speech - movements that • accentuate a word or phrase • sketch a path of thought • point to present objects • depict a spatial relationship • depict the pacing of an event • draw a picture of the referent • depict bodily action
Illustrators They may also be emblems used to illustrate verbal statements;but you leave the word out and use the emblem.
Aware of the illustrators? • Less deliberate than emblems. (They seem to be within the realm of awareness, but we are not as aware of them as we are of emblems which we use much more deliberately.)
Frequency of Illustrators • ...more in face to face situations • ...fewer over the intercom or telephone • ... in excitement and enthusiastic situations • ... when the receiver isn’t getting the message through words alone • ... when you can’t find the right word
Affect Displays • Facial configurations that display affective states: sad tired ecstatic • Used to: • Repeat • Augment • contradict • can be unrelated to verbal affective statements.
Affect Displays • Can occur without our knowing it; (Once it happens we are aware of it.) • We may or may not want to communicate our affective state through such displays
Regulators 1 Non verbal acts that maintain and regulate the interactions between two or more participants.
Regulators 2 • They can tell the speaker to: continue hurry up become more interesting explain let the other talk
Turn-taking regulators (the most studied kind) Head tilting Nods Eye contact e.g. less eye contact if you want to terminate conversation.
Status of regulators • On the periphery of our awareness; hard to stop them. • Almost involuntary • We may not be aware of doing it ourselves, but are very aware when others do it to us.
Adaptors • Learned early in life • Less well documented • Less well understood
Self-Adaptors Manipulations of own body indicating increase in anxiety Examples • holding • scratching • picking oneself • eye-cover contact - (might be shame or sadness)
Alter-Adaptors Related to interpersonal behaviors; probable holdovers from early aggression, fleeing, fighting Examples: leg movements looking over shoulder before gossiping
Object adaptors Learned later in life - more socially acceptable • stroking a pipe • tapping a pencil • hands in pockets • twisting a ring
Physical Characteristics • Not all nonverbal communication comes through movement and motion • Some are static self presentation characteristics • body height • Weight • Hair • skin color, tone • breath odor
Touching Behavior guiding another’s motion (Haptics) strokingpushing
Paralanguage • How - not what you say. • Speech behavior • Voice quality and pitch • Range and rhythm control • Tempo • Articulation • Resonance • Glottis control • Vocal and lip control
Vocalizations • Non verbal sounds - not words, but convey a meaning. • Divided into three categories: • vocal characterizers • vocal qualifiers • vocal segregates
vocal characterizers • Laughing • Sighing • Crying • Belching • Inhaling • Excessive groaning • Whining • Yelling • Whispering
vocal qualifiers • intensity (loud-soft) • pitch height • high-low • extreme drawl to extreme clipping
vocal segregates (separators) “um” “uh” “ah”