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Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal Communication

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Nonverbal Communication

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  1. Nonverbal Communication

  2. Objectives • Understand the definition of nonverbal communication • Understand different types of nonverbal communication • Understand the functions of nonverbal behavior • Understand differences in nonverbal behavior between Chinese culture and American culture

  3. 1. Defining Nonverbal Communication • In 1952, Birdwhistell’s Introduction to Kinesics marks the beginning of nonverbal communication study. • Edward T. Hall, The Silent Language, The Hidden Dimension, Beyond Culture, and The Dance of Life • Generally Speaking, nonverbal behavior refers to the communication behavior other than verbal behavior. (pitch, volume,rate, quality pause, hesitation etc. ---paralanguage)

  4. Generally speaking, nonverbal behavior refers to the communication behavior other than verbal behavior. (pitch, volume, rate, quality pause, hesitation etc. ---paralanguage) • Nonverbal communication refers to the communication process in which message transmitted( by one or more people) in nonlinguistic form or paralanguage is received (by one or more people)

  5. 2. The Branches (I)of Nonverbal Communication Studies • Chronemics (时间学)-studying the use and meaning of time • Proxemics(空间学)-studying distance between persons and the use and meaning of the space • Kinesics(身势学)-studying facial expression, body movements and gestures • Haptics(体触学)-studying the message transmitted by body contact

  6. 3. Branches(II) • Physical Appearance(外表)—studying people’s skin color, dressing, and shape • Oculesics(目光学)-studying the message transmitted by eye contact, blinks, eye movement and pupil dilation • Paralanguage/Vocalics(副语言)-studying the message transmitted by nonlinguistic elements in the sound • Olfactics(嗅觉学)-studying the message transmitted by people’s smell • Time and space combined; kinesics (posture and body movements); paralanguage(sound elements and functional sound);still silence(no action as well as no sound)

  7. 4. Nonverbal Communication System • The use of time and space • Body behavior---posture and body movements • Behavior of sound--- elements of sound, functional sound, and still silence • Physical appearance---dressing, shape and skin color, use of artifacts, and smell

  8. 5. Functions of Nonverbal Behavior • Communication behavior: • body language(270,000); • facial expression(250.000); • message by facial expression(55%), by pitch(38%), and by verbal codes(7%)

  9. Functions of NB • Complementing; • contradicting; • repeating; • regulating; • substituting; • accenting (unconscious behavior)

  10. 6. The Use of Time and Space(I) • Time: Monochronic time system and Polichronic time system • Monochronic: strictly scheduled; (thought patterns)linear and highly fragmented; in industrialized countries; highly efficient, and respectful for privacy; inflexible • Polychronic: slightly or not scheduled; (thought patterns)comprehensive, intuitive, and sensible; in underdeveloped countries; less efficient, and less respectful for privacy; flexible

  11. 7. The Use of Time and Space(II) • Space: distance between persons; private territory • Contact culture: requires less distance in social communication and pays less attention to private territory. • Mediterranean area; Jewish culture; East European countries and Russia; Indonesia; Latin America

  12. noncontact culture: requires more distance in social communication and pays more attention to private territory • Scandinavian countries; Germany; Britain, America; Japanese • Family; Public place; Office; Bank and Office; Elbow one’s way; Queue; Walk shoulder by shoulder; Hand in hand

  13. 8. The Use of Space • Talking: face to face; side by side; the two directions of a table corner • Walking upstairs and down stairs • Walking into a lift or other public places • Walking on the pavement • Getting on a bus • Sitting at a dinner table

  14. 9. Numbers • English • Favorable numbers: 8, 9 • Unfavorable numbers: 13, 3, 2 • Chinese: • Favorable numbers: 8, 9, 6 • Unfavorable numbers: 4

  15. 10. Body Behavior • Eye Contact and Facial Expression • Look at each other when talking or at least exchange eye contact • Never trust a person who can’t look you in the eyes. • Staring, gaping • English: impolite, makes others embarrassed and self-conscious • Chinese: curiosity, sometimes surprise

  16. Gestures: (I) the same gesture carries different implications • Stamping one’s foot • English: impatience • Chinese: anger, irritation, frustration, and remorse • Speaker or performer clapping at the same time the audience applauds • English: applauding oneself, improper, and immodest • Chinese: thank you and mutual positive feelings

  17. Pat on head • English: giving comport, consolation or encouragement; also shows affection • Chinese: seldom used; occasionally used by adults to show affection for children; patting the head of a teenager or adult would cause displeasure and can be insulting

  18. The same implication expressed by different gestures • Come here • English: hand extended toward person, closed hand, palm up, with forefinger only moving back and forth • Chinese: hand extended toward person, open palm, palm down, with all fingers crooked in a beckoning motion

  19. Sham on you • English: forefinger of each hand extended, palms down in front of one’s body; one forefinger makes several brushing movement over the back of the other forefinger • Chinese: forefinger of one hand extended, tip touches one’s own face several times quickly; similar to scratching, but with the forefinger straight • I’m very full • English: hand raised to throat, fingers extended, palm down • Chinese: one for both hands open, lightly patting one’s own stomach

  20. Gestures that are specific to English • Chewing one’s fingernails: emotional stress, worried, doesn’t know what to do • Thumbing one’s nose: defiance, contempt • Wagging one’s finger: warning not to do something; indicating that what the other person is doing is wrong

  21. Thumb down: rejection of a proposal, idea, person; no • Winking: understanding, approval, encouragement, trying to get across a message, solidarity • Gestures that are specific to Chinese • Touching or pointing to tip of one’s own nose with raised forefinger: “It’s me” “I’m the one”

  22. Using an open hand to cover one’s mouth while speaking: to show confidentiality and secrecy • Using both hands in offering something to a visitor or another person: respect • Upraised forefinger of each hand coming together in front of the body until the two touch: boy and girl in love; a good match

  23. 11. Behavior of Sound • Elements of Sound • Speed: the speaking speed of radio or television in both Britain and the US is faster than those in China • Volume: Chinese usually speaks louder than American • Functional sounds • Unfavorable sound • English: impolite • Chinese: OK

  24. Sounds in eating • English: impolite • Chinese: OK • Laughing in a speech • English: impolite • Chinese: OK • Using hands to eat • English: OK • Chinese: unhealthy • Laughing when something unfavorable happens • English: Impolite • Chinese: Impolite

  25. Crying in a funeral • English: weak character • Chinese: OK • Still silence • English: communicative failure • Chinese: OK

  26. 12. Physical Appearance • Skin color • English: slightly black • Chinese: white • Moustache • English: razing everyday • Chinese: not required • Fine hair over human body • English: razing often • Chinese: usually not

  27. Hair • English: using wig • Chinese: usually not • Finger • English: dye the fingernail • Chinese: not often • Shape • Tall, slim • Dressing • English: formal and informal for different occasion • Chinese: mixing

  28. Color (English): Red is lovable; green stands for hope and tranquil; pink is romantic; brown is serious; white is pure; orange is generous; violet is mysterious; turquoise is strong; blue is feminine • Red book; white elephant; green eyes; yellow book

  29. Hat • English: put off hat at home, • Chinese: no hat in bed, show respect for the dead • Shoes • English: putting off shoes carries sexual implications • Chinese: putting off shoes when getting into the house • Smoking • Drinking • Umbrella • Smell