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NCEA Level 3 Biology Achievement Standard 3.5 ‘Describe processes and patterns of evolution by; Discussing ways in which speciation occurs (sympatric and allopatric )

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Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

  • NCEA Level 3 Biology

  • Achievement Standard 3.5

  • ‘Describe processes and patterns of evolution by;

  • Discussing ways in which speciation occurs (sympatric and allopatric)

  • Discussing reproductive isolating mechanisms that contribute to speciation (geographical, temporal, ecological, behavioural, structural barriers and polyploidy)


Patterns and processes of evolution

Patterns and Processes of Evolution

Charles Darwin

“Father of Evolution”


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

  • From early times, people have tried to explain the origins of human beings and other living things on earth. Cultures, groups of people and individuals have various ideas about how life, earth and humans came about and what it means.

  • In Science we learn about the Scientific theory of Evolution


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Maori of human beings and other living things on earth. Cultures, groups of people and individuals have various ideas about how life, earth and humans came about and what it means.

Have the story that Papa, the earth goddess and Rangi the god of the sky, where joined so tightly that no light could come into the world and their children could not escape from between them. Tane, managed to separate them, which allowed light into the world meaning plants could grow and animals survive.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

The of human beings and other living things on earth. Cultures, groups of people and individuals have various ideas about how life, earth and humans came about and what it means.Boshongo Tribe

This is a tribe in central Africa. They believed that in the beginning there was only darkness, water and the god Bumba. One day Bumba had a bad stomach ache and vomited up the sun, moon, stars, animals and finally man.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Christian Story of human beings and other living things on earth. Cultures, groups of people and individuals have various ideas about how life, earth and humans came about and what it means.

God made the world in 6 days and rested on the seventh. This comes from the old Testament and has been passed on through generations.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Thoughts from Scientists of human beings and other living things on earth. Cultures, groups of people and individuals have various ideas about how life, earth and humans came about and what it means.


1 charles darwin 1809 1882 73yrs old sailed around the world 1831 1836
1. Charles of human beings and other living things on earth. Cultures, groups of people and individuals have various ideas about how life, earth and humans came about and what it means.Darwin (1809-1882) 73yrs oldSailed around the world 1831-1836


2 what did darwin s travels reveal
2. What did Darwin’s Travels reveal of human beings and other living things on earth. Cultures, groups of people and individuals have various ideas about how life, earth and humans came about and what it means.

  • The diversity of living species was far greater than anyone had previously known.

  • These observations led him to develop the theory of evolution.


3 how did tortoises and birds differ among the islands of the galapagos
3.How did tortoises and birds differ among the islands of the Galapagos?

  • Each island had its own type of tortoises and birds that were clearly different from other islands


Galapagos turtles
Galapagos Turtles the Galapagos?



5 evolution is a theory just like gravity
5. organisms descended from ancient onesEvolution is a Theory – Just like Gravity!

  • Evolution is a well supported explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world

  • A theory in science is a well tested hypothesis, not just a guess


5 geologists hutton and lyell
5. organisms descended from ancient onesGeologists: Hutton and Lyell

  • Fundamentalists said that the earth was around 6000 years old

  • Hutton and Lyell argued that the earth is many millions of years old because;

    • layers of rock take time to form

    • processes such as volcanoes and earthquakes shaped the earth and still occur today


6 lamark theory of acquired characteristics
6. organisms descended from ancient onesLamarkTheory of acquired characteristics

  • Lamark said organisms acquired traits by using their bodies in new ways

  • These new characteristics were passed to offspring

  • Lamark was totally wrong!

  • … but raised some good points


7 darwin finally published his ideas in 1859
7. organisms descended from ancient onesDarwin finally published his ideas in 1859

  • Other naturalists were developing the same theory that Darwin did.

  • Even though he was afraid of the Church’s reaction to his book he wanted to get credit for his work.


Descent with modification
Descent with Modification organisms descended from ancient ones

  • Each living species has descended with changes from other species over time


Summary of darwin s theory
Summary of Darwin’s Theory organisms descended from ancient ones

1. Organisms differ; variation is inherited

2. Organisms produce more offspring than survive

3. Organisms compete for resources

4. Organisms with advantages survive to pass those advantages to their children

5. Species alive today are descended with modifications from common ancestors


Evidence of evolution
Evidence organisms descended from ancient onesof Evolution

  • Fossil Record

  • Geographic Distribution of Living Species

  • Homologous Body structures

  • Similarities in Embryology


Evidence of evolution1
Evidence organisms descended from ancient onesof Evolution

Fossil Record provides evidence that living things have evolved

Fossils show the history of life on earth and how different groups of organisms have changed over time


Relative vs absolute dating
Relative vs. Absolute Dating organisms descended from ancient ones


Relative dating
Relative Dating organisms descended from ancient ones

  • Can determine a fossil’s relative age

  • Performed by estimating fossil age compared with that of other fossils

  • Drawbacks – provides no info about age in years


Absolute dating
Absolute dating organisms descended from ancient ones

  • Can determine the absolute age in numbers

  • Is performed by radioactive dating – based on the amount of remaining radioactive isotopes remain

  • Drawbacks - part of the fossil is destroyed during the test


Carbon 14 dating
Carbon-14 Dating organisms descended from ancient ones


Fossil formation
Fossil organisms descended from ancient onesFormation


Primate fossils
Primate Fossils organisms descended from ancient ones

Australopithecus Homo erectus Homo sapien


Primate bone structure
Primate Bone structure organisms descended from ancient ones


Human relatives
Human Relatives organisms descended from ancient ones


Evidence of evolution2
Evidence of Evolution organisms descended from ancient ones

  • Geographic Distribution of Living Species

    Similar animals in different locations were the product of different lines of descent

    Geographic distribution- the distribution of related species, especially on isolated islands, provides evidence of how new species have evolved.


Evidence of evolution3
Evidence organisms descended from ancient onesof Evolution

Turtle

Homologous Body Structures

  • Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues

    e.g. Wing of bat, human arm, leg of turtle

Alligator

Bird


Homologous body structures
Homologous Body Structures organisms descended from ancient ones


Vestigial organs
Vestigial Organs organisms descended from ancient ones

  • traces of homologous organs in other species

  • Organ that serves no useful function

    e.g. Appendix, horse chestnut, dog claw…


Evidence of evolution4
Evidence organisms descended from ancient onesof Evolution

Similarities in Embryology

  • In their early stages of development, chickens, turtles and rats look similar, providing evidence that they shared a common ancestry.


Embryological development
Embryological development organisms descended from ancient ones


Define the terms species and population
Define the terms species and population organisms descended from ancient ones

NZ Fur Seal (Arctocephalus forsteri)

  • Species- A group of organisms that are sufficiently similar to each other to be capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring.

  • Population – All the organisms of a particular species living in a defined area.

http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/threatened/graphics/seal.gif

http://simonc.f2o.org/south/images/penguins_wallpaper.jpg


Example
Example organisms descended from ancient ones

  • Dogs are within the species of Canines. they are similar enough to all other organisms in this group to reproduce and give rise to fertile offspring- wolves, foxes, poodles, husky…

  • The population is all the Canines living in a certain area- African fighting Dogs in Southern Africa

  • Population is localised, species is global


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

  • So… organisms descended from ancient ones

  • A species is a group of organisms whose members can reproduce to give fertile offspring

  • Genes can therefore be exchanged between gene pools of populations of the same species but not between populations of different species


Evolution is
Evolution is… organisms descended from ancient ones

  • A genetic change in a population

  • The genetic make up of a population is its gene pool which is all the genes in the whole population

  • When new offspring are born its genes contribute to the gene pool of the population

  • When an organism dies, its genes are lost from the gene pool


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Divergent Evolution organisms descended from ancient ones

  • This occurs when an ancestral species evolves into two or more species that become specialised to occupy different ecological niches.

http://www.sacs.ucsf.edu/home/johns/past/bc578/wk10/98-Exercise_10S09.gif


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Adaptive radiation organisms descended from ancient ones

  • When an ancestral species diverges into a large number of species occupying separate niches.

  • It is a relatively rapid process that involves the founder effect.

http://www.biology-online.org/images/darwin_finches.jpg


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Blue-black grassquit finch (seed eating ground finch) organisms descended from ancient ones

from South American mainland

http://biology.leidenuniv.nl/ibl/S10/DesignS/lib/exe/fetch.php?w=&h=&cache=cache&media=terms:adaptive_radiation.jpg


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

The most famous example of adaptive radiation. organisms descended from ancient ones

http://lshs.leesummit.k12.mo.us/kjones/Cameron's%20Website/EVOLUTION_files/slide0052_image098.jpg

http://www.rit.edu/~rhrsbi/GalapagosPages/Pictures/LandBirds/FinchTypes.jpeg


Parallel evolution
Parallel Evolution organisms descended from ancient ones

  • Similar features may evolve in related species whose common ancestral species did not have those features. This occurs through experiencing similar selection pressures.

  • Many Biologists argue that this is really convergent evolution.

http://www.micro.utexas.edu/courses/levin/bio304/evolution/rabbitconverg.gif


Convergent evolution
Convergent Evolution organisms descended from ancient ones

  • When species that have a similar way of life evolve similar features, even though they have quite different ancestors.

  • NZ example; divaricating habit of many unrelated shrubs (60 species belonging to 20 different plant families). This is thought to be linked to the presence of browsing Moas in the past.

http://www.bushmansfriend.co.nz/site/images/20525.jpg


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

http://home.earthlink.net/~snailstales/parallelism.JPG organisms descended from ancient ones


In summary
In Summary organisms descended from ancient ones

Which one’s which?!!


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Punctuated equilibrium: organisms descended from ancient onesevolutionary model in which there is long periods of little change in the species punctuated by short bursts of rapid change most often associated with speciation. Ancestor is still present.

Gradualism: evolutionary model for the rate of evolution where the accumulation of changes resulting in speciation occurs slowly and steadily over millions of years. Ancestor is extinct.


Natural selection
Natural selection organisms descended from ancient ones

  • We all have different genetic make ups (genomes)

  • These different genomes give rise to different traits

  • Not all traits have the same chance of survival therefore some are passed on through reproduction if they are selected FOR and some fail to survive and reproduce and therefore are eliminated from the gene pool of a population


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by


Natural selection and species fitness
Natural by genotypeSelection and Species Fitness

  • Overtime, natural selection results in changes in the inherited characteristics of a population.

  • These changes increase a species fitness (survival rate)


Natural selection in a nut shell
Natural Selection in a nut shell by genotype

1. Present day species have evolved from ancestral forms.

2. Organisms produce more offspring than survive. The offspring compete for food and other essentials for survival.

3. Offspring produce by sexual reproduction will show variation; some characteristics that are more suited to their environment than others.

4. Those individuals of a species with favourable characteristics will survive longer and produce more offspring to pass their favourable characteristics on. Those with unfavourable characteristics will not survive as long or reproduce as frequently. This is called ‘survival of the fittest’.

5. Successive generations will become modified over time, particularly if their environment is changing. Gradually the species will change sufficiently to be recognised as a new species.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Adaptation and natural selection by genotype

http://farm1.static.flickr.com/49/125046333_7123c38e73.jpg


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

In all populations there is a large range of phenotypes that usually fall into the normal bell-shaped pattern of distribution.


Types of natural selection
Types of Natural Selection usually fall into the normal bell-shaped pattern of distribution.


Types of natural selection1
Types of Natural Selection usually fall into the normal bell-shaped pattern of distribution.

http://img.sparknotes.com/figures/A/a3aa6bb95c7d70781cc0089d17f9160f/stable.gif

http://bio.research.ucsc.edu/~barrylab/classes/animal_behavior/IMAGES2.DIR/DIRECT.GIF


Disruptive selection
Disruptive Selection usually fall into the normal bell-shaped pattern of distribution.

http://img.sparknotes.com/figures/A/a3aa6bb95c7d70781cc0089d17f9160f/stable.gif

http://www.micro.utexas.edu/courses/levin/bio304/popgen/disruptive.gif


Artificial selection
Artificial usually fall into the normal bell-shaped pattern of distribution. Selection

  • nature provides variation, humans select variations that are useful.

  • Example - a farmer breeds only his best livestock


For evolution to occur there must be variation for natural selection to work against
For evolution to occur there must be variation for natural selection to work against.

http://www.iespalomeras.net/allnatural/imagenes-web/dibujos/meiosis.gif

Variation is caused by

  • Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

  • Crossing over during Meiosis

  • Mutations

http://staff.tuhsd.k12.az.us/gfoster/standard/3head.gif


Speciation
Speciation selection to work against.

  • Formation of 2 or more species from a single species

  • Can happen slowly or quickly

  • Slowly- accumulation of small changes

  • Faster- polyploidy: mutation which causes more than the usual haploid number of chromosomes to occur


Allopatric speciation
Allopatric selection to work against. Speciation

This is when a population becomes separated by a geological barrier.

This eventually leads to different species with completely different gene pools.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Mountains selection to work against.

Water

Geological Barriers

Canyons and Deserts

Continental plates


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Black Robin selection to work against.

Chatham Island Robin

South Island Robin


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

American Squirrels selection to work against.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Once the population has been separated by geological barriers, they become so different they are not able to interbreed if the physical barrier separating them were removed. There can be no exchange between their gene pools because of reproductive isolating mechanisms.


Sympatric speciation
Sympatric Speciation barriers, they become so different they are not able to interbreed if the physical barrier separating them were removed. There can be no exchange between their gene pools because of

  • This occurs when a sub-population becomes reproductively isolated in the midst of the parent population. These populations are said to be sympatric if their ranges overlap. These are species of the same genus living together in the same area.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Prezygotic then the isolating mechanism must be biological. There are two types of biological mechanisms Mechanisms

  • Different species breed at different times on the year.

  • Courtship and mating behaviour are different.

  • The reproductive structures of the species may be incompatible.

  • The gametes of the species may not function successfully together.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Postzygotic then the isolating mechanism must be biological. There are two types of biological mechanisms Mechanisms

  • Hybrid inviability: the sperm may fertilise the egg but full development does not occur.

  • Hybrid sterility: the offspring may reach maturity but they are unable to have offspring of their own.

  • Hybrid disadvantage: the offspring may be fertile but less fertile than normal or less likely to survive.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Describe the Key ideas that underpin the theory of evolution: genetic variation, competition, differential reproductive success (natural selection)

  • Present day species have evolved from ancestral forms.

  • Organisms produce more offspring that will survive. These offspring must compete for food, space etc to survive.

  • Sexual reproduction creates offspring with variation. Some are born with characteristics that are more suited to their environment than others.

  • Survival of the fittest allows some to survive long enough to pass on their genes through reproduction.

  • Successive generations will become modified over time. Gradually the speices will change sufficiently to become a new species in many cases.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

http://www.offthemarkcartoons.com/cartoons/1999-10-05.gif evolution: genetic variation, competition, differential reproductive success (natural selection)


Define gene and allelle frequency speciation gene flow and genetic equilibrium
Define gene and evolution: genetic variation, competition, differential reproductive success (natural selection)allelle frequency, speciation, gene flow and genetic equilibrium

  • Gene frequency- The proportion of those individuals in a population with a particular allele.

  • Allele frequency- The proportion of a given allele in the gene pool as a fraction of all forms of that gene, e.g frequency of 0.2 means that it accounts for 20% of all alleles of that gene in the population.

  • Speciation- The process of forming a new species.

  • Gene flow- Exchange of alleles between populations by immigration and emigration.

  • Genetic Equilibrium- A state in which a population is not evolving. The species stays in its present form as there is no gene mutation, large population, isolated population, gene of interest has no effect on survival and reproduction and mating is random.


P6 define the terms genetic drift founder effect and bottle neck effect
P6:Define the terms genetic drift, founder effect and bottle neck effect.

  • Genetic drift- Random changes in allele frequency due to chance, only significant in small populations.

Figure 7.7   Concept of genetic drift. In a large population with random mating, large fluctuations of gene frequency are unlikely. In a small population, however, gene frequency can change dramatically from one generation to the next, if, for example, only the AA individuals participate in mating by chance.

www.blackwellpublishing.com/korfgenetics/


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Genetic drift neck effect.

This is a change in the allele frequencies of a population as a result of chance processes. This has a big influence in small populations where chance alone may play a considerable role.

Two examples of these chance events are the genetic bottleneck and similarly the Founders effect.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by
Founder effect- Changes in allele frequency due to chance, as a result of small group of founders become isolated from the main population.

1. Double disaster: The island fruit flies are now geographically isolated from their mainland relatives, but only a few larvae have survived the harrowing journey to end up colonizing the island.

2. Rare genes survive: These few survivors just by chance carry some genes that are rare in the mainland population. One of these rare genes happens to cause a slight variation in the mating dance. Another causes a slight difference in the shape of male genitalia. This is an example of the founder effect.

3. Gene frequencies drift: These small differences, which are rare on the mainland, drift to fixation in the small population on the island over the course of a few generations (i.e., the entire island population ends up having these genes).


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/.../C21_Bottleneck_2.GIF as a result of small group of founders become isolated from the main population.

Bottleneck effect- Period in which a population becomes temporarily reduced to very small numbers, as a result of which its genetic diversity becomes reduced.

http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IIID3Bottlenecks.sht

An example of a bottleneck:Northern elephant seals have reduced genetic variation probably because of a population bottleneck humans inflicted on them in the 1890s. Hunting reduced their population size to as few as 20 individuals at the end of the 19th century. Their population has since rebounded to over 30,000—but their genes still carry the marks of this bottleneck: they have much less genetic variation than a population of southern elephant seals that was not so intensely hunted.

www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/.../C21_Bottleneck_2.GIF


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

http:// as a result of small group of founders become isolated from the main population.nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/ZooAnimalWallpaper/images/cheetah.jpg


All of the following can lead to changes in the gene pool
All of the following can lead to changes in the gene pool as a result of small group of founders become isolated from the main population.

  • Immigration

  • Mutation

  • Natural Selection

  • Genetic Drift

  • Population size

  • Mate Selection


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

http://www.biology-online.org/images/darwin_finches.jpg as a result of small group of founders become isolated from the main population.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Macro and Micro evolution as a result of small group of founders become isolated from the main population.

A change in the frequencies of certain alleles in a gene pool over successive generations is called microevolution. This term is often used to refer to small, reversible changes within a species.

Large, irreversible changes in a gene pool, such as those involved in the formation of a new species (speciation) or in adaptive radiation is called macroevolution.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Agents that change gene frequencies as a result of small group of founders become isolated from the main population.

The following agents change the frequency of genes in the gene pool of the population:

  • Non-random mating

  • Mutation

  • Genetic drift

  • Gene flow

  • Natural selection.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Non-random mating as a result of small group of founders become isolated from the main population.

This occurs when a certain phenotype is preferred over others. This eventually leads to the decrease in the un-preferred phenotypes.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Mutation as a result of small group of founders become isolated from the main population.

Mutation is the ultimate source of variation that can change the equilibrium within a population.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Geneflow as a result of small group of founders become isolated from the main population.

This is caused by the immigration and emigration of individuals into a population. This increases and decreased the genes within the population.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Natural Selection as a result of small group of founders become isolated from the main population.

Some combinations of alleles are more likely to help survival and reproduction than others. This means that the frequency of these alleles in the population will increase. This is what is meant by the ‘survival of the fittest’.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Different forces such as predation, competition, disease, lack of food, water, climate etc. act on the different phenotypes causing the normal distribution to change.


Ncea level 3 biology achievement standard 3 5 describe processes and patterns of evolution by

Stabilising selection: is when the average is favoured over the other extremes.

Directional selection- favours one extreme over the average or the other extremes.

Disruptive selection- favours both extremes over the average.


Industrial melanism an example of natural selection
Industrial Melanism- the other extremes.An example of Natural Selection

www.ucl.ac.uk/.../courses/b242/OneGene/pep2.jpg

Dark forms of the British peppered moth (Biston betularia), as well as many other species of moth, became common in the middle of the 19th century near centres of industrial pollution. Soot coated the trunks and branches of trees, and killed lichens.  In the photos, a pale form (typica) and a dark form (carbonaria) rest side-by-side on an unpolluted lichen covered trunk in Dorset (above), and a soot-covered trunk near Birmingham.  (From HBD Kettlewell, 1956, Heredity 10: 300).