Tests of Achievement. Selective Testing Table. Located in Test Books and Examiner Manual. Organization of 22 Achievement Tests. Standard Battery Letter-Word Identification Reading Fluency Passage Comprehension Story Recall Understanding Directions Calculation Math Fluency
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Selective Testing Table Located in Test Books and Examiner Manual
Organization of 22 Achievement Tests Standard Battery Letter-Word Identification Reading Fluency Passage Comprehension Story Recall Understanding Directions Calculation Math Fluency Applied Problems Spelling Writing Fluency Writing Samples Story Recall-Delayed Handwriting Legibility Scale Extended Battery Word Attack Reading Vocabulary Picture Vocabulary Oral Comprehension Quantitative Concepts Editing Academic Knowledge Spelling of Sounds Sound Awareness Punctuation and Capitalization
Major Differences from WJ-R: Achievement • Enhances broad achievement clusters (3 tests: 1 skills, 1 fluency, and 1 application) • Includes Oral Language tests • Offers ability/achievement discrepancy option using Oral Language as ability • Increases usefulness at early reading levels • Provides diagnostic spelling measure
7 new tests Reading Fluency Story Recall Story Recall-Delayed Understanding Directions Math Fluency Spelling of Sounds Sound Awareness Major Differences from WJ-R: Achievement 8 new clusters • Total Achievement • Academic Fluency • Academic Skills • Academic Applications • Phoneme/Grapheme Knowledge • Oral Language • Oral Expression • Listening Comprehension
Learning Disability Eligibility 7 IDEA Areas WJ III Tests Oral Expression Story Recall, Picture Vocabulary Listening Comprehension Understanding Directions, Oral Comprehension Written Expression Writing Fluency, Writing Samples Basic Reading Skills Letter-Word Identification, Word Attack Reading Comprehension Passage Comprehension, Reading Vocabulary Mathematics Calculation Calculation, Math Fluency Mathematics Reasoning Applied Problems, Quantitative Concepts
Reliability Reliability • Goal for clusters set at .90 or higher • Goal for tests set at .80 or higher
Reliability of the Achievement Clusters Standard Battery Clusters Extended Battery Clusters Total Achievement .98 Oral Language-Std. .87 Broad Reading .94 Broad Math .95 Broad Written Language .94 Academic Skills .96 Academic Fluency .93 Academic Applications .95 Oral Language-Ext. .92 Oral Expression .85 Listening Comprehension .89 Basic Reading Skills .95 Reading Comprehension .92 Math Calculation Skills .91 Math Reasoning .95 Basic Writing Skills .94 Written Expression .91 Phoneme/Grapheme .90 Knowledge Note: median reliabilities reported
Validity Evidence • Content • CHC theory test blueprint-based content analysis • Both broad and narrow abilities accounted for in test specifications • Construct • Divergent growth curves (developmental evidence) • Confirmatory factor analysis (internal/structural) evidence • Test and cluster intercorrelations • Convergent/discriminate validity evidence • Concurrent • 11 special studies (775 additional subjects) • Comparison to tests measuring similar constructs
WJ III ACH Concurrent Validity BR BRS RC BMS MC MR BWS WE Rdg. .76 .66 .81 Decoding .67 .66 .74 Comprehension .65 .44 .62 Reading .67 .82 .78 Basic .63 .82 .70 Comprehension .68 .68 .79 Math .66 .60 .41 Calculation .65 .67 .49 Application .52 .40 .29 Math .70 .69 .56 Numerical OP .57 .59 .38 Reasoning .66 .60 .60 Spelling .77 .57 Spelling .77 .42 Writ.Exp. .57 .31 KTEA WIAT KTEA WIAT KTEA WIAT
ACH 1 Letter-Word Identification • Requires identifying and reading isolated letters and words, primarily a sight recognition task • Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect • Know exact pronunciation of words • Responses must be pronounced as a complete word to receive credit Broad Ability Reading-Writing (Grw) Narrow Ability Reading Decoding Clusters Broad Reading Basic Reading Skills Academic Skills Total Achievement
Letter-Word Identification H C A S B W 3, 4 A 7 on whole particularly satiate 16 36 56 76 • Examiner Tips • If response is unclear on a specific item, have subject repeat entire page. Only score item in question. • Record errors for analysis.
5 4 2 3 1 AE 6-9 GE 1.4 1. Starting Point 2. No basal on first 6 items. Complete page then turn back 1 page. 3. Basal established Items 15-21. 4. Continue test with Item 25. 5. Ceiling reached Items 27-32. 1 1 1 23 1 1 1 What is the Number Correct? What are the estimated AE/GE? 1 0 jet saw half 0 0 1 1 0 them most aboat olny prat cold 0 0 0 0 0
ACH 2 Reading Fluency New • Requires reading and comprehending simple sentences rapidly (uses SRB) • Start with Item 1/End with 3-minute time limit • If fewer than 3 correct on Practice Exercises C-F, discontinue testing and score test a “0” Broad Ability Reading-Writing (Grw) Narrow Ability Reading Speed Clusters Broad Reading Academic Fluency Total Achievement
Reading Fluency • Examiner Tips • Remind subjects to read each sentence if it appears they are circling answers randomly. • Do not include in the score, items beyond the last item the subject completed.
Number Correct (0-98) Number Incorrect (0-98) To use the hand-scoring table, compute the Total Number correct below. _____ - _____ = _____ (0-98) Number Number Total Correct Incorrect 82 16 66 Reading Fluency - Scoring 1. Use the scoring overlay for easy scoring. 2. Total the Number Correct. 3. Total the Number Incorrect. 4. Enter both numbers in the software program. 82 16 5. Subtract Number Incorrect from Number Correct if estimated AE/GE scores are needed. If a negative number is obtained, use 0.
ACH 3 Story Recall New • Requires listening to stories and recalling elements • Use Suggested Starting Points • Follow Continuation Instructions • Do not repeat or replay any stories Broad Ability Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) Narrow Abilities Language Development Listening Ability Clusters Oral Language-STD Oral Language-EXT Oral Expression
Story Recall - Examiner Tips • Pause the audio recording after each story so the subject can respond. • In the Test Record, place a check mark over each element recalled. (elements are separated by slash marks /) • Elements that are bold must be recalled exactly. Other elements can be synonyms or paraphrased. • If necessary, stories can be presented orally. • If Test 12 Story Recall-Delayed will be administered, do not tell subject that stories may need to be recalled later.
Sample Responses 3 Points Possible Story Recall - Story 1 • Julie / likes to catch butterflies./ Then she lets them go./ • She catches butterflies. (1) • Julie catches butterflies. (2) • Julie likes catching butterflies. She lets them go. (3) • Continuation Rules • If subject has 3 or fewer points on Stories 1 and 2, testing may be discontinued. • If subject has 4 or more points on Stories 1 and 2, administer Stories 3 and 4 unless already administered.
Story Recall - Story 2 Mary / has a dog./ He loves to ride / in the car,/ but he hates to take a bath./ Score these responses: (5 points possible) • He doesn’t like taking baths. • Mary’s dog loves to ride in the car. • Her dog hates baths but he loves riding in the car.
Sample Responses 6 Points Possible Story Recall - Story 5 Rick / got some glow-in-the-dark/ stars / for his sixth birthday./ He wanted to put them on his bedroom / ceiling./ He wanted to put them in his bedroom. (1) Rick got some glowing stars for his birthday. (2) He put some glow-in-the-dark stars on his bedroom ceiling. (4) • Continuation Rules • If subject has 8 or fewer points on Stories 5 and 6, administer Stories 3 and 4 unless already administered. • If subject has 9 or more points on Stories 5 and 6, administer Stories 7 and 8 unless already administered.
Story Recall - Story 6 The dinosaur / at the museum/ was over 20 feet / tall./ Many people came to see it. / Some small / children / were scared./ They thought it was real./ Score these responses: (9 points possible) • They were afraid of the dinosaur. • At the museum there was a 20 foot tall dinosaur. The little kids were scared. They thought it was real.
Place check mark over each element recalled correctly. 2 3 Bold words must be recalled exactly. 5 Follow Continuation Instructions. Enter Date & Time. 9 27 00 11 30 3or fewer points: Discontinue testing. 4or more points: Administer Stories 3 and 4. Record points for each story and each set of stories.
New ACH 4 Understanding Directions • Requires listening to instructions and then pointing to objects in pictures • Use Suggested Starting Points • Follow Continuation Instructions • Let subject review picture for 10 seconds prior to administering items Broad Ability Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) Narrow Ability Listening Ability Language Development Clusters Oral Language-STD Oral Language-EXT Listening Comprehension
Understanding DirectionsForm A (Picture 3) 1. Point to the frog and then the bear. Go. 7. First point to the log, then the deer, and then the campfire. Go. 9. Point to the cloud farthest to the left, and then the cloud farthest to the right. Go. • Continuation Rules Pictures 2-3 • 7 or fewer correct, give Picture 1 • 8-13 correct, discontinue testing • 14 or more correct, give Pic. 4-5
Understanding Directions - Examiner Tips • Pause or stop audio recording after last item of each picture. • Do not repeat or replay any item. If an obvious noise (e.g., bell ringing) interferes, finish the picture, then re-administer specific item. • All steps must be completed to receive credit. (any order unless otherwise specified) • Record Number of Points for each picture in space provided in Test Record. • When using the software program, an entry must be made for each picture: Number of Points or “X” if not administered.
X 4D Pictures 6-7 4A Picture 1 Enter Number of Points. Enter “X” if not administered. 4B Pictures 2-3 4C Pictures 4-5 (0-22 or X) (0-10 or X) (0-4 or X) (0-21 or X) 13 X X Understanding Directions Follow Continuation Instructions to determine which pictures to administer and when to discontinue testing. Follow continuation instructions Picture 2 Jungle Scene 0 7 Picture 3 Mountain Scene Software Score Entry 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 6 13 7or fewer points: Administer Picture 1 8 to 13 points: Discontinue testing. 14 or more points: Administer Pictures 4 and 5.
ACH 5 Calculation • Requires calculation of problems ranging from simple addition facts to calculus (uses SRB) • Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect • Skipped items are scored as a “0” • Do not point out signs • Accept reversals but not transposed numbers Broad Ability Mathematics (Gq) Narrow Ability Mathematics Achievement Clusters Broad Mathematics Math Calculation Skills Academic Skills Total Achievement
Calculation Sample A: Make the number “one” in this box. 1. 2 + 2 = 2. 1 + 1 = 3. 2 + 1 = 9. 5 - 1 = 10. 9 11. 17 + 7- 9 26. 1.05 28. -18 29. -6 x .2+ 12x 7 • Examiner Tips • If subject responds incorrectly to both sample items, testing may be discontinued. Score test “0.” • Do not penalize for poorly formed numerals. • Be sure to complete all queries in Test Book.
ACH 6 Math Fluency New • Requires rapid calculation of single-digit addition, subtraction, and multiplication facts (uses SRB) • Begin with Item 1/End with 3-minute time limit • Skipped items are scored as a “0” • Do not point out signs • Discontinue if 3 or less correct after 1 minute Broad Ability Mathematics (Gq) Narrow Abilities Mathematics Achievement Numerical Facility Clusters Broad Mathematics Math Calculation Skills Academic Fluency Total Achievement
Math Fluency • Examiner Tips • Do not penalize for poorly formed or reversed numbers. • Record exact finishing time if subject finishes early or examiner exceeds time limit. • Scoring overlay is provided.
ACH 7 Spelling • Requires writing letters and words presented orally (uses SRB) • Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect • Use Suggested Starting Points based on present level of spelling skill • Modified from Dictation in WJ-R - no punctuation, capitalization, or usage items Broad Ability Reading-Writing (Grw) Narrow Ability Spelling Clusters Broad Written Language Basic Writing Skills Academic Skills Total Achievement
Spelling • Items 1-4 Prewriting with demonstration • Items 5-6 Tracing with demonstration • Item 7 Copying a letter • Items 8-14 Printing letters • Items 15-59 Spelling words • Examiner Tips • Do not penalize poor handwriting or reversed letters as long as the letter does not become a new letter. (b = d) • Accept uppercase or lowercase responses unless case is specified. • Know the exact pronunciation of the word for each item. • Request responses be printed but accept cursive.
Spelling - Examiner 12.Number twelve. Print the letter U. U. Correct: U, u (capital or lowercase) 13. Number thirteen. Look at the two letters. The first letter is a lowercase or small a. The next letter is a lowercase or small h. Print a lowercase e. e. Correct: e (must be lowercase) 15. Number fifteen. Spell the word in. Come in to the house. In. Correct: in 35. Number thirty-five. Cough. She had a cough. Cough. Correct: cough 55. Number fifty-five. Omniscient (ahm-nish- nt). The author took an omniscient point of view. Omniscient. Correct: omniscient e
ACH 8 Writing Fluency • Requires formulating and writing simple sentences rapidly (uses SRB) • Begin with Item 1/End with 7-minute time limit • Discontinue if subject has “0” on Samples B-D • Any stimulus words may be read upon request • 3 stimulus words may not be changed in any way Broad Ability Reading-Writing (Grw) Narrow Ability Writing Speed Clusters Broad Written Language Written Expression Academic Fluency Total Achievement
Writing Fluency - Samples A & B I am going to ask you to write short sentences about some pictures. A. Look at this picture and the words “good,” “cake,” and “is.” A short sentence that tells about the picture and uses these words is “The cake is good.” B. Now look at this picture and the words “pig,” “fat,” and “is.” Use these three words and any other words you need to write a short sentence about the picture. You may put the words in any order. Go ahead and do Sample Items C and D. A. good cake is B. pig fat is
Writing Fluency - Examiner Tips • Score as incorrect any items skipped. • Do not penalize for spelling, punctuation, or capitalization errors. • Do not penalize for poor handwriting unless illegible. • Response must be a reasonable sentence to receive credit. • If the sentence is awkward but the meaning is clear, score as 1. • Accept sentences with the understood subject you. • Accept abbreviations or symbols • If a word critical to the meaning is omitted, score as 0. • Omission of less meaningful word is not penalized.
The light is shining from the window. Writing Fluency - Scoring Items 25-28 He is dropping a dime in the bank. They are running the race again. I want to use the toy truck.
ACH 9 Passage Comprehension • Requires reading a short passage and supplying a key missing word • Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect • Use Suggested Starting Points • Accept responses that differ in tense or number • Score responses that are different parts of speech as “0” Clusters Broad Reading Reading Comprehension Academic Applications Total Achievement Broad Ability Reading-Writing (Grw) Narrow Abilities Reading Comprehension Lexical Knowledge
The drums were pounding in the distance. We could them. 22 It is one thing to demonstrate that modern war is harmful to the species. It is another thing to do something about it. 40 Passage Comprehension Something is on the chair. It is a . 12 • Examiner Tips • Remind subject to read silently, but do not insist. • Do not tell subject any words. • If subject reads item aloud, he/she must identify the word that goes in the blank to receive credit.
ACH 10 Applied Problems • Requires comprehending the nature of a problem, identifying relevant information, performing calculations, and stating solution • Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect • No reading is required Broad Ability Mathematics (Gq) Narrow Abilities Quantitative Reasoning Math Achievement Knowledge of Mathematics Clusters Broad Mathematics Math Reasoning Academic Applications Total Achievement
Applied Problems Show me your hand. Show me your fingers. 1. Show me just one finger. 15. If Maria ate one of these suckers, how many suckers would be left? 30. Jay’s car holds fifteen gallons of gas. Ana’s car holds ten gallons of gas and Ellen’s car holds twenty gallons of gas. How many more gallons does Jay’s car hold than Ana’s car? Jay: 15 gallons Ana: 10 gallons Ellen: 20 gallons • Examiner Tips • Give subject SRB (worksheet) and pencil at Item 30. May be given earlier if needed.
ACH 11 Writing Samples • Requires writing sentences in response to a series of demands that increase in difficulty (uses SRB) • Use Suggested Starting Points • Administer Block of Items • Administer additional block of items if score falls in shaded area of scoring table Broad Ability Reading-Writing (Grw) Narrow Ability Writing Ability Clusters Broad Written Language Written Expression Academic Applications Total Achievement
Writing Samples Scoring Responses 2 superior response 1.5 not clearly a 2, but better than a 1 point 1 standard response .5 not clearly a 1, but better than a 0 0 inadequate or illegible • Block of Items • 1 to 6 • 1 to 12 • 7 to 18 • 13 to 24 • 19 to 30 • Examiner Tips • Use Scoring Guide in Appendix B of Examiner Manual. • Items may be scored 2, 1.5, 1, .5, or 0 even if no example is shown in Scoring Guide. • Score is based on one block even if additional blocks were administered.
Writing Samples 1. This says, “My name is________.” Write your name here. 7. This woman is a queen. Write a sentence that tells what this man is. 13. Write one good sentence that tells what is happening in this picture and what could happen next. 19. Write one sentence about a boy finding a lost dog. Include the words “who found the” in the middle of your sentence. 30. Write a good sentence using the words “despite her anger.” • Examiner Tips • Do not penalize for punctuation, capitalization, spelling, or usage errors except when indicated otherwise. • Words may be read upon request. • Do not spell any words for subject.
Writing Samples - Scoring Items 13 -15 He can’t see ware to sit. Add eggs. Bothe the lamp & the sun are sorsus of lite.
He gets a retainer but it’s not the thing you put in your mouth. Writing Samples - Scoring Items 16-18 I like to snowbored, skee, and play video games. It’s riskee to dive into a pool of unnoan depth becuz you mite misjuge your dive and, konsukwently, brake your nek. • Examiner Tips • Do not ask subject to read response for purpose of scoring. • Response must be legible enough to be read by adult without knowledge of item content.
Writing Samples - Examiner Tips • Severe grammatical or usage errors - reduce score by 1 point (omission of critical words, extremely awkward sentences) • Multiple Sentences - Select and score the one sentence that most closely meets tasks demands. • Inappropriate Content - Responses that have little to do with the requested task are scored as 0. • Misinterpretation of Picture - Ignore and score response according to item criteria. • Two Raters - Two independent raters score items and resolve any score differences of more than 1 point. Average the two scores to obtain final number correct. • Round scores - ending in .5 to nearest even number (15.5 = 16, 16.5=16)
3 Adjusted Item Blocks 6 5 4 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1.5 1. 1.5 1. Began with Items 1-12 2. Number of Points = 22 3. Find 22 in column for Items 1-12 4. See Note 2 5. Administer Items 13-18 6. Base score on Items 7-18 2 22
ACH 12 Story Recall - Delayed New • Requires recalling elements of stories presented 30 minutes to 8 days earlier • Only administer stories previously given in Test 3 • Do not include prompts read by examiner in raw score • Scoring is the same as Test 3 Story Recall. In Test Record, place check mark over each part of story recalled accurately. Broad Ability Long-Term Retrieval (Glr) Narrow Ability Meaningful Memory Cluster Delayed Recall (requires Cognitive Test)