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EVOLUTION REVIEW Chapters 22-24. Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006. Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in a specific environment. fitness. Inherited characteristic that increases and organism’s chances for survival. adaptation.

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evolution review chapters 22 24

EVOLUTIONREVIEWChapters 22-24

Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006

slide2
Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in a specific environment

fitness

Inherited characteristic that

increases and organism’s chances

for survival

adaptation

slide3

Natural variation in population provides basis

for natural selection to act

Describe the main points of Darwin’s theory of evolution

Overproduction of offspring forces competition for resources (struggle for survival)

Organisms best suited to their environment will survive

and reproduce; Other organisms die or leave fewer

offspring (survival of the fittest/natural selection)

Species alive today have descended with modification from ancestral species that lived in the distant past

All organisms are united into a single “tree of life” (common descent)

slide4

evolution

Change in a population over time

Differences among individuals

within a species

Natural variation

slide5
Structures that develop from the same embryonic tissues, but have different mature forms

Homologous structures

Organs that are historical remnants of structures that had important functions in ancestors

Vestigial organs

slide6

fossil

Preserved remains of an ancient

organism

Islands that Darwin visited on his

voyage on the Beagle that started

him thinking about how organisms

change over time

Galapagos

slide7
One species of spotted skunk mates in late summer, and another mates in late winter. This is an example of a _____ zygotic reproductive barrier called ______________ isolation

pre

temporal

http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.html

http://www.zwani.com/graphics/antivalentines_day/images/4heart.gif

http://www.horton-szar.net/clipart/animals4.php

slide8
Concept that each living species has descended with changes from other species over time

Descent with Modifications

Idea that organisms that are

best suited to their environment will survive and reproduce

Survival of the Fittest

slide9
Type of distribution curve shown by

polygenic traits

Bell-shaped curve(OR normal distribution)

Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006

slide10
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF APHYSICAL ADAPTATION

Webbed feet, horns, antlers,

claws, feathers, wings, camouflage,

. . . . there are a million

GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF ABEHAVIORAL ADAPTATION

Nocturnal (coming out at night);

Flying south for the winter, living in herds,

“wagon train” defense; burrowing; hibernation

slide11
When humans select and breed animals with certain useful traits from the natural variation in the population

Artificial selection

Process by which unrelated

organisms independently evolve

similarities when adapting to

similar environments

Convergent evolution

slide12
Book published by Charles Darwin

in which he proposed a mechanism

and provided evidence for his

Theory of Evolution

“On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection”

Process by which related organisms evolve differences when they are isolated in different environments

Divergent evolution

slide13
The bones in the diagrams below are examples of

____________ structures

Homologous

http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html

slide14
Naturalist who gave Darwin incentive to

publish his ideas about evolution by

writing an essay that described similar

ideas.

Alfred Russel Wallace

French naturalist who hypothesized

that organisms acquire traits during

their lifetime through use or disuse

which can be passed on to offspring

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

slide15
Explain what was incorrect about Lamarck’s

Inheritance of Acquired Traits

hypothesis

Genes determine which traits are passed on;

unless genes are changed the acquired trait will

only show in the original organism

Explain what was correct about Lamarck’s

Inheritance of Acquired Traits

hypothesis

First theory about evolution;

Organisms do change and adapt to their environments

slide16
Male fireflies of one species signal females of the same species by blinking their lights in a specific pattern. Other firefly species have different patterns. This is an example of a _____ zygoticreproductive barrier called ______________ isolation

pre

Behavioral

http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.html

http://www.webweaver.nu/clipart/insects2.shtml

slide17
Name 3 kinds of evidence that supports Darwin’s THEORY OF EVOLUTION

Fossils

Geographic distribution

Homologous structures

Vestigial organs

EmbryologyDNA

Pseudogenes

Artificial selection

Can see natural selection work antibiotic resistance, new diseases,

slide18
One species of garter snake is primarily aquatic, while another closely related species is primarily terrestrial. This is an example of a _____ zygoticreproductive barrier called ______________ isolation

pre

Habitat

http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.html http://www.zwani.com/graphics/antivalentines_day/images/4heart.gif

http://www.animalpicturesarchive.com/animal/

slide19
The idea that all species, living and extinct, were derived from a common ancestor

Common descent

What Darwin called natural

selection?

Survival of the fittest

slide20
Measuring lima beans and finding beans come in different sizes is an example of

____________

Natural variation

The practice of breeding dogs to

produce offspring with specific

traits is an example of

_________________

artificial selection

slide21

Vestigial organs

A human’s appendix and a skink’s legs are examples of _______________

How would Lamarck

explain these giraffes

with longer necks?

Giraffes stretched their necks to

reach food in tall trees and this

acquired characteristic is passed

on to their offspring.

Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006

slide22

How would Darwin explain these giraffes with longer necks?

Populations naturally have

individuals with different

sizes of necks

(natural variation)

The ones with longer necks

are better able to get food, survive, and pass on their longer neck alleles.

Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006

slide23

micro

Evolutionary change on the smallest scale like new strains of HIV evolving from current HIV virus is called ______ evolution

Which variable is used to represent the frequency of the dominant allele in a Hardy Weinberg problem?

p

slide24
According to this diagram, modern

whales have a vestigial pelvis

and femur. What does this suggest

about ancestors of modern whales?

Ancestors of modern whales had legs and

walked on land

Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006

slide25

beaks

The adaptations in species of finches that Darwin observed on the Galάpagos Islands were

different shaped _____________

Why did Darwin first hesitate to

publish his ideas about evolution?

His findings challenged fundamental scientific beliefs at the time

slide26
A possible explanation for a set of observations or a possible answer to a scientific question

Change in the DNA sequence of anorganism due to mistakes in replication or damage from radiation or chemicals

hypothesis

mutation

slide27
Who is the scientist that proposed

the idea that forces which have been

changing the Earth are still at work?

Charles Lyell

Who realized that human populations

were increasing and said eventuallythere would not be enough food andspace for everyone?

Thomas Malthus

slide28
Whales and wolves share a common ancestor, but have evolved to look very different. This is an example of _____________ evolution.

divergent

What do we call genes that havelost their function due to mutations?

pseudogenes

slide29
Tell one piece of evidence that suggests human chromosome #2 evolved by joining 2 smaller ancestor chromosomes.

Banding pattern matches

It has telomeres in the middle

instead of just at the ends.

It has an extra inactive centromere

instead of just one.

slide30

Human arm, bird wing, whale flipper

Give an example of homologous structures

Give an example of a pseudogene youlearned about

Vitamin C gene in primates,genes for “smell” in humans

slide31
A well supported, testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world is called a ______________

Name the ship that Darwin spent 5 years on traveling around the world.

theory

H.M.S. Beagle

slide32
Who is the scientist that proposed the idea of that forces have been changing the Earth and have been at work for millions of years?

James Hutton

Who is the scientist that proposed the idea of “Inheritance of

Acquired Traits”?

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

slide33
Who is the scientist that proposed

an idea about evolution which

prompted Darwin to publish his theory?

Alfred Wallace

When lions prey on a herd of antelope, some antelope are killed and some escape. Which part of Darwin’s theory of evolution might be used to describe this situation?

Survival of the fittest; natural selection

slide34
Explain what was incorrect about Lamarck’s

Inheritance of Acquired Traits

hypothesis

TRAITS ARE DETERMINED BY GENES; ACQUIRED TRAITS ARE NOT PASSED ON

Explain what was correct about Lamarck’s

Inheritance of Acquired Traits

hypothesis

LIVING THINGS CHANGE OVER TIME TO BEST FIT THEIR ENVIRONMENTS

slide35

Adaptive radiation

Another name for divergent evolutionis ________________

What Darwin called “survival of the fittest”

_________________

Another name for “struggle for existence” is _______________

Natural selection

competition

slide36
Darwin’s concept of evolution was influenced by all of the following EXCEPT

A. the work of Charles Lyell and James Hutton

B. his collection of specimens and fossils

C. his knowledge of the structure of DNA

D. his voyage around the world

E. Malthus’s ideas about populations and resources

C. Darwin didn’t know about DNA!

slide37
Whales and sharks are not closely related, but have evolved to have similar body shapes and fins because they live in similar environments. This is an example of _____________ evolution.

convergent

slide38
TELL THE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH THE HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE HOLDS TRUE:

Random mating

LARGE population

NO mutations

NO movement IN OR OUT

NO natural selection

slide39
All of these statements about the structure of

human chromosome #2 provide evidence for

evolution EXCEPT

A. Its banding pattern matches the pattern seen on two smaller chimp chromosomes

B. It has telomeres in the center, as well as at the ends

C. It carries a functional gene for making vitamin C

D. It has an extra non-functional centromere

C. Humans have a nonfunctional vitamin C making gene,

and its not on chromosome #2

slide40
Name the type of selection shown in the diagram below.

Directional selection

Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006

slide41
Traits controlled by two or more genes

Polygenic trait

Process by which related organisms evolve differences when they are isolated in different environments

Divergent evolution OR Adaptive radiation

slide42

Natural variation

Measuring lima beans and finding beans come in different sizes is an example of ____________

Process by which unrelated

organisms independently evolve

similarities when adapting to

similar environments or to solve similar problems

Convergent evolution

slide43

Stabilizing

In _____________ selection, individuals near the center of a normal curve of distribution have higher fitness than those at the extremes

Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006

slide44
A change in a DNA sequence caused by a mistake in DNA replication or exposure to radiation or chemicals

mutation

Changes in the allele frequencyin a small population that are dueto random chance and don’t followthe laws of probability

Genetic drift

slide45
All the genes, including all the different alleles, in a population

Gene pool

A situation in which the allele

frequencies in a population do NOT

change and the population does NOT EVOLVE

Genetic equilibrium

slide46
A change in allele frequencies due to the migration of a small subgroup of a population to a new place

Founder effect

Idea that allele frequency will remain constant unless one or morefactors cause those frequencies

to change

Hardy-Weinberg Principle

slide47

pre

The copulatory organs of two insect species do not fit together. This is an example of a _____ zygotic reproductive barrier called ______________ isolation

mechanical

http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.htm

lhttp://newhaven828.typepad.com/.a/6a00d8347ae50569e200e5538e3c2e8834-320pi

slide48
Tell the 2 equations needed to solve Hardy Weinberg problems

p + q = 1

P2 + 2pq + q2 = 1

The number of times a certainallele occurs in a gene pool

compared to the number of times

other alleles for the same gene occur

Relative frequency

slide49

Mutations

caused by mistakes in copying DNA caused by radiation

or environmental chemicals

Gene shuffling during meiosis

crossing over

independent assortment

Tell two sources of genetic variation in populations

slide50

disruptive

In ___________ selection, individuals at the extreme ends of the normal distribution curve have higher fitness than those near the center of the curve

Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006

slide51
Name the type of selection shown in the diagram below.

Stabilizing selection

Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006

slide52
WHICH PATTERN of SELECTION IS IT?

stabilizing disruptive directional

Lighter colored peppered moths were more common in England prior to the Industrial revolution. As pollution increased, the darker colored moths were less likely to be eaten. Over time darker colored moths have become more abundant in the population.

directional selection

slide53

directional

In ___________ selection individuals at one end of the normal distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end

Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006

slide54
If all the conditions of Hardy-Weinberg are met, what happens to the population?

Which variable is used to represent the frequency of the RECESSIVE PHENOTYPE in a population in a Hardy Weinberg problem?

There is NO EVOLUTION

q2

slide55

Can all the conditions of

Hardy-Weinberg ever be met?

MOST OF THE TIME NO WAY!

You can have small & isolated populations (no moving in or out) BUT. . . there is always non-random mating, mutations, & natural selection. So there is ALMOST ALWAYS EVOLUTION HAPPENING !

slide56
Darwin believed in the idea that evolution happened slowly over a long period of time called __________

Pattern of evolution in which long

stable periods of little evolution

interrupted by brief periods of rapid change

gradualism

Punctuated equilibrium

slide57

founder

The clan of “blue people” in Kentucky we learned about is an example of ___________ effect

A change in relative frequencyof alleles in a population

evolution

slide58
WHICH PATTERN IS IT?

coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution

punctuated equilibrium mass extinction

Horse evolution shows long stable periods

of little evolution interrupted by brief

periods of rapid change

Punctuated equilibrium

Biology by Miller and Levine Pearson Publishing

slide59
WHICH PATTERN IS IT?

coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution

punctuated equilibrium mass extinction

At the end of the Cretaceous period an asteroid

hit the Earth causing the loss of many species

including the dinosaurs

Mass extinction

slide60

http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gifhttp://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gif

WHICH PATTERN IS IT?

coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution

punctuated equilibrium mass extinction

The Galápagos finches evolved through natural

selection from a common ancestor into a wide

variety of different looking species with different

kinds of beaks

Adaptive radiation (divergent evolution)

slide61
WHICH PATTERN IS IT?

coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution

punctuated equilibrium mass extinction

Hummingbirds have a beak just the right length

to reach the nectar in a cardinal flower and as

they feed their foreheads bump into the pollen structure. Cardinal flowers are red which

hummingbirds can see, but bees can’t, and their

pollen structure is at just the right height for

the hummingbird to pick up pollen as it feeds.

coevolution

slide62
WHICH PATTERN IS IT?

coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution

punctuated equilibrium mass extinction

Whales, sharks, and penguins all have streamlined

bodies and fins/flipper for moving in water

even though they belong in different animal groups

(mammals, fish, and birds)

Convergent evolution

slide63

Beaver

Beaver

Muskrat

Beaver andMuskrat

Coypu

NORTH AMERICA

Muskrat

SOUTH AMERICA

Capybara

Coypu

WHICH PATTERN IS IT?

coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution

punctuated equilibrium mass extinction

Beaver in North America and capybara in South America are closely related species living in very different

environments that have evolved to look differentover time.

Adaptive radiation OR divergent evolution

BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine Pearson Publishing

slide64
WHICH PATTERN IS IT?

coevolution adaptive radiation divergent evolution

punctuated equilibrium mass extinction

The tortoises on the Galapagos islands share a common ancestor, but over time they have become

adapted for obtaining food in different habitats

on different islands by having different neck lengths

Adaptive radiation ORdivergent evolution

slide65

analogous

Similarities that result fromCONVERGENT evolution are considered to be ____________ structures.

slide66
WHICH PATTERN of SELECTION IS IT?

stabilizing disruptive directional

Human babies born smaller than average are likely to be less healthy and less likely to survive. Larger than average babies are likely to have difficulty being born. The fitness of these larger or smaller weight babies is lower than average-sized babies so human babies tend to born of average size.

Stabilizing selection

slide67
Name the type of selection shown in the diagram below.

Disruptive selection

Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006

slide68
WHICH PATTERN of SELECTION IS IT?

stabilizing disruptive directional

A population of birds lives in an area where plants with medium sized seeds are wiped out by a fungal infection. Birds with unusually large or small beaks would have higher fitness than those with medium sized beaks. Over time the population splits into two subgroups; one that eats small seeds and one that eats large seeds.

disruptive selection

slide69
Mules produced when a horse and donkey interbreed are sterile. This is an example of a _____ zygotic reproductive barrier called hybrid ____________

post

infertility

http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.html

slide70
All of the following influenced Darwin except

Lyell Mendel Hutton Malthus Lamarck

Which variable is used to represent the frequency of the recessive allele in a Hardy Weinberg problem?

Mendel

q

slide71

pre

Sperm of one sponge species cannot penetrate the egg of a closely related species.This is an example of a _____ zygotic reproductive barrier called _________ isolation

gametic

http://sisu.typepad.com/sisu/spongebob.jpg

http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.html

slide72
Evolutionary change above the species level including the appearance of major evolutionary developments like flight

(EX: fish → amphibians) is called

______evolution

Which variable is used to represent the frequency of the dominant PHENOTYPE in a population in a Hardy Weinberg problem?

macro

p2

slide73
Mode of speciation induced when an ancestral population becomes split by a geographic barrier

Which variable(s) is/are used to represent the frequency of the HETEROZYGOUS PHENOTYPE in a population in a Hardy Weinberg problem?

Allopatric “other country”

2pq

slide74
Mode of speciation occurring as a result of a radical change in the genome of a subpopulation reproductively isolating it from the parent population (EX: polyploidy)

The geographic distribution patterns of species that support Darwin’s theory

sympatric “same country”

biogeography

slide75

post

Two cotton species produce fertile hybrids but the next generation is infertile. This is an example of a _____ zygotic reproductive barrier called hybrid __________

breakdown

http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.htm

http://ipm.ncsu.edu/cotton/InsectCorner/photos/images/Open_cotton_plant.jpg

slide76

Gene flow

__________ occurs when a population gains or loses alleles when individuals move in or out of a population

Kind of genetic drift in which a

sudden change in the environment(ex: earthquake, tidal wave, fire) drastically reduces the size of population

Bottleneck effect

slide77
The increased chance of survival of individuals that are heterozygous for the sickle cell allele helps to maintain this deleterious recessive allele in populations that live in areas infected by malaria. This is called

Heterozygote advantage

Kind of genetic drift in which a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and establish a new population whose gene pool is different from the parent population

Founder effect

slide78
Nearly all the embryos die when eggs of a bullfrog are fertilized artificially with sperm from a leopard frog. This is an example of a ____ zygotic reproductive barrier called hybrid __________

post

inviability

http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.htm

l http://www.animationlibrary.com

slide79
THE END. . .

or is it?

EVOLUTION IS STILL HAPPENING