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APPENDIX A HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE PowerPoint Presentation
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APPENDIX A HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

APPENDIX A HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

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APPENDIX A HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

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  1. APPENDIX A HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

  2. INTRODUCTION • Information technology (IT) - Any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization • Hardware- Consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system • Software - The set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks

  3. HARDWARE BASICS • Computer-An electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept, manipulate, and store data • Hardware components include: • Central processing unit (CPU) • Primary storage • Secondary storage • Input device • Output device • Communication device

  4. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT • Central processing unit (CPU) (or microprocessor) - The actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together • Control unit -Interprets software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do, based on the software instructions • Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) -Performs all arithmetic operations (for example, addition and subtraction) and all logic operations (such as sorting and comparing numbers)

  5. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT • The number of CPU cycles per second determines the speed of a CPU • Megahertz (MHz) - The number of millions of CPU cycles per second • Gigahertz (GHz) - The number of billions of CPU cycles per second

  6. PRIMARY STORAGE • Primary storage - The computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the CPU

  7. SECONDARY STORAGE • Secondary storage - Consists of equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage • Megabyte (MB or M or Meg) - Roughly 1 million bytes • Gigabyte (GB) -Roughly 1 billion bytes • Terabyte (TB) - Roughly 1 trillion bytes

  8. OPTICAL MEDIUM • Optical medium types include: • Compact disk-read-only memory (CD-ROM) • Compact disk-read-write (CD-RW) drive • Digital video disk (DVD) • DVD-ROM drive • Digital video disk-read/write (DVD-RW)

  9. INPUT DEVICES • Input device - Equipment used to capture information and commands • Manual input devices • Joystick • Keyboard • Microphone • Automated input devices • Bar code scanner • Digital camera • Magnetic ink character reader

  10. OUTPUT DEVICES • Output device -Equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of information processing requests • Cathode-ray tube (CRT) • Liquid crystal display (LCD) • Laser printer • Ink-jet printer • Plotter

  11. COMMUNICATION DEVICES • Communication device -Equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another • Dial-up access • Cable • Digital subscriber line • Wireless • Satellite

  12. COMPUTER CATEGORIES • Computer categories include: • Personal digital assistant (PDA) • Laptop • Tablet • Desktop • Workstation • Minicomputer • Mainframe computer • Supercomputer

  13. SOFTWARE BASICS • System software -Controls how the various technology tools work together along with the application software • Operating system software • Utility software • Application software

  14. UTILITY SOFTWARE • Types of utility software • Crash-proof • Disk image • Disk optimization • Encrypt data • File and data recovery • Text protect • Preventative security • Spyware • Uninstaller

  15. APPLICATION SOFTWARE • Types of application software • Bowser • Communication • Data management • Desktop publishing • Email • Groupware • Presentation graphics • Programming • Spreadsheet • Word processing