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Managing the OD Process. Three basic components of OD programs:. Diagnosis. Continuous collection of data about total system, its subunits, its processes, and its culture. Action. All activities and interventions designed to improve the organization’s functioning. Program management.

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Three basic components of OD programs:


Continuous collection of data about total system, its subunits, its processes, and its culture


All activities and interventions designed to improve the organization’s functioning

Program management

All activities designed to ensure success of the program















For P/O 1





For P/O2

Problem not



For P/O3

Problem not






For P/O4






Diagnosing Organizational Subsystems

Diagnostic targets

Information sought

Methods of Diagnosis

The total organization

Q) What is organization’s culture?

Q) Are organizational goals and strategy understood and accepted?

Q) What is organization’s performance?

  • Examination of organizational records – rules, regulations, policies
  • Questionnaire survey
  • Interviews (both group & individual)

Large and complex subsystems

Q) What are the unique demands on this subsystem?

Q) Are organization structures and processes related to unique demands?

Q) What are the major problems confronting this subsystem?

  • Questionnaire survey
  • Interviews
  • Observations
  • Organization records

Small and simple subsystem

Q) What are major problems of the team?

Q) How can team effectiveness be improved?

Q) Do individuals know how their jobs relate to organizational goals?

  • Individual interviews
  • group meeting to review the interview data
  • Questionnaires
  • Observation of staff meetings and other day- to-day operations

Intergroup subsystems

Q) How does each subsystem see the other?

Q) What problems do the two groups have in working together?

Q) How can they collaborate to improve performance of both groups?

  • Interviews of each subsystem followed by ‘sharing the data meeting’
  • Flowcharting critical processes
  • Meetings between both groups


Q) Do people perform according to organization’s expectations?

Q) Do they need particular knowledge or skills?

Q) What career development opportunities do they have/ want/ need?

  • Interviews
  • Information from diagnostic meetings
  • Data available with HR department


Q) Is the role defines adequately?

Q) What is the ‘fit’ between person and role?

Q) Is this the right person for this role?

  • Role analysis
  • Observations
  • Interviews
Diagnosing Organizational Processes

Organizational Processes

Information sought

Methods of Diagnosis

Communication patterns, styles & flows

Q) Is communication open or closed?

Q) Is communication directed upward, downward, laterally?

Q) Are communications filtered? ….. Why? How?

  • Observations – in meetings
  • Questionnaires
  • Interviews and discussion with group members

Goal setting

Q) Do people set goals?

Q) Who participates?

Q) Do they possess necessary skills for effective goal setting?

  • Questionnaires
  • Interviews
  • Observations

Decision making, problem solving & action planning

Q) Who makes decisions?

Q) Are they effective?

Q) Are additional decision making skills needed?

  • Observations of problem-solving meetings
  • Analysis of videotaped sessions
  • Organizational records

Conflict resolution and management

Q) Where does conflict exist?

Q) Who are involved parties?

Q) How is it being managed?

  • Interviews
  • Flowcharting critical processes
  • Meetings between both groups

Superior-subordinate relations

Q) What are the prevailing leadership styles?

Q) What problems arise between superiors and subordinates?

  • Questionnaires
  • Interviews

Strategic management & long range planning

Q) Who is responsible for ‘looking ahead’ and making long term decisions?

Q) Do they have adequate tools and support?

Q) Have the recent long range decisions been effective?

  • Interviews of key policy makers
  • Group discussions
  • Examination of historical records
Diagnosis – The Six-Box Model


Marvin Weisbord



Weisbord identifies six critical areas where things must go right if organisation is to be successful. According to him, the consultant must attend to both formal and informal aspects of each box.






This model is still widely used by OD practitioners

third wave consulting
Third-Wave Consulting
  • Weisbord wrote an article in which he mentioned the third wave.
  • 1st wave= agricultural revolution
  • 2nd wave= industrial revolution
  • 3rd wave= technological revolution
  • He no longer looks at the “sickness” model of OD but concentrates on the “wellness” model which talks about creating workplace that have meaning.
4 useful practices
4 “Useful practices”
  • Assess the potential for action
  • Get the whole system in the room
  • Focus on the future
  • Structure tasks that people can do for themselves.
Action Component
  • Interventions are the actions taken to produce desired changes.
  • Four conditions that give rise to the need for OD interventions:
    • The organisation has a problem (corrective action – to fix it)
    • Organization sees an unrealized opportunity (enabling action – to seize the opportunity)
    • Features of organization are out of alignment (alignment action – to get things back ‘in sync’)
    • Yesterday’s vision is no longer good enough(action for new vision – actions to build necessary structures, processes and culture to make new vision a reality)
nature of od interventions
Nature of OD Interventions
  • All the OD interventions have a dual purpose i.e. educational and accomplishing-a-task.
  • They focus on real problems central to each organization’s needs rather than hypothetical.
  • They use several learning models e.g. “learning how to do” may precedes the “doing” part and it also be the other way round.
analyzing discrepancies
Analyzing Discrepancies
  • It is examining the discrepancies or gaps between what is happening and what should be happening, and the discrepancies between where one is and where one wants to be.
  • Problem=gap
  • Problem solving=discovering the cause of the gap
  • Decision making= discovering a solution-a set of actions- to close the gap.
Program Management Component
  • All OD programs follow a logical progression of events:
  • Warner Burke describes the following phases of OD:-
  • Entry
  • Contracting
  • Diagnosis
  • Planning change
  • Intervention
  • Evaluation
  • It represents the initial contact between consultant and client.
  • Determine whether the problem or opportunity, the client and consultant constitute a good match.
  • It involves establishing mutual expectations, reaching agreement on expenditures of time, money, resources, and energy.
  • Generally clarifying what each party expects to get from the other and give to the other.
  • It is a fact-finding phase.
  • It has two steps:
  • Gathering information
  • Analyzing it.
  • It represents returning the analyzed information to the client system.
  • The client explores the information for understanding, clarification, and accuracy.
planning change
Planning change
  • It involves the clients deciding what actions steps to take based on the information they have just learned.
  • Alternative possibilities are explored and plans for action are selected and developed.
  • It calls for implementing sets of actions designed to correct the problems or seize the opportunities.
  • It represents assessing the effects of the program:
  • What is successful?
  • What changes occurred?
  • What were the causal mechanisms?
  • Are we satisfied with the results?
a model for managing change
A model for Managing Change
  • Motivating change
  • Creating readiness for change
  • Overcoming resistance to change
  • Creating a vision
  • Valued outcomes
  • Valued conditions

Effective Change


  • Developing Political Support
  • Assessing change agent power
  • Identifying key stakeholders
  • Influencing stakeholders
  • Managing the Transition
  • Activity planning
  • Commitment planning
  • Managing structures
  • Sustaining Momentum
  • Providing resources for change
  • Building support system
  • Reinforcing new behaviors
creating parallel learning structures
Creating Parallel Learning Structures
  • Establishing a sense of urgency
  • Examining market and competitive realities
  • Identifying and discussing crises, potential crises,
  • or major opportunities
  • Forming a powerful guiding coalition
  • Assembling a group with enough power to lead the change effort
  • Encouraging the group to work together as a team.
  • Creating a vision
  • Creating a vision to help direct the change effort
  • Developing strategies for achieving that vision
Communicating the vision
  • Using every vehicle possible to communicate the new vision and strategies
  • Teaching new behaviors by the example of the guiding coalition
  • Empowering others to act on the vision
  • Getting rid of obstacles to change
  • Changing structures and systems
  • Encouraging risk taking
  • Planning for and creating short-term wins
  • Planning for visible performance improvements
  • Creating those improvements
  • Recognizing and rewarding employees involved in the improvements
Consolidating improvements and producing still more change
  • Hiring promoting and developing employees who can implement the vision
  • Reinvigorating the process with new projects, themes, and change agents.
  • Institutionalizing new approaches
  • Articulating the connections between the new behaviors and corporate success
  • Developing the means to ensure leadership development and succession.
Phases 1 and 2 focus on establishing the need for change, building readiness and commitment, and creating infrastructure that has sufficient political support.
  • Phase 3 communicates openly what is happening and why.
  • Phase 4 solicits widespread involvement from organization members.
  • Phase 5, 6 & 7 represent extensive study, data collection, targeting high-priority problems and experimenting tom find solutions to problems