Environment of the organisation is becoming increasingly unstable because change is a significant element of organisational life so attempts have been made to develop models and theories.
Lewin(1951) who is a social psychology change have three major steps; • 1)Unfreezing:Support existingbehaviour in the organisation are reduced, • 2)Moving:New responses are developed based on new information such as new behaviours,approaches,values etc. • 3)Refreezing:Provide new behaviours as accepted and established practice,processes or values within the organisation.
Different ways of managing change • Johnson et al.(2008) have developed typology of ways of managing change; • Education and communication:Management spend time explaining the problems being faced • Collaboration/participation:Employees or special groups of them are involved in setting the strategy • Intervention:Different agents co-ordinate the process • Direction:Usingauthority, • Coercion/edict:Usingpower.
OrganisationalDevelopment(OD)Model • It has six keys stages which are set out by Cole(2000); • 1)Preliminary stage:Impose top management with change agent that change is needed, • 2)Analysis and diagnosis:The managers and change agent will determine the diagnosis from the information gathered, • 3)Agreement about aims of the programme:The aims and objectives of the change programme will be decided upon,
4)Action planning:Theplan of actions timing and order, • 5)Evaluation and review:Itis necessary to monitor and frequently review the strategy for change, • 6)Revised aims and plans:Thedegree of revision needed will be dependent on the findings of the reviews,and if any aims of the programme altered then it will also be necessary to adapt the plans. Otherwise;change agent will no longer be involved.
Total QualityManagement(TQM) is theconcept of Japanese-inspiredwhichimproveorganisationalperformanceandeffectivenes. • General definition of TQM is; a way of life for an organisation as a whole,committedto total customersatisfactionthrough a continuousprocess of improvement, andthecontributionandinvolvement of people.
Introductionto TQM • Total: qualityinvolveseveryoneandallactivities in thecompany • Quality:conformancetorequirements (meetingcustomerrequirements) • Management:quality can andmust be managed • TQM: a processformanagingquality; it must be a continuousway of life; a philosophy of perpetualimprovement in everythingwe do
Deming; • Who has a majoreffect on theestablishmentanddevelopment of TQM. • Accordingtohim;importance of pride in workandprocesscontrol,andmadeconstantreferencetotheimportance of ‘goodmanagement’ includingthehumanside of qualityimprovementandhowemployeesshould be treated.
However ,Hellerraisesdoubts as tohow far TQM is ‘total’ andhow far it is trulyaffectingmanagementandthequality of management. • Thomassuggests;’’Total Qualitycannot be ‘managed’ in thetraditional sense of wordbecause it involvesfactorssuch as commitment,purpose,visionandtrustthatare not amenabletomechanisticprescription. Quality can,andmust be,managed. Total Qualitymust be encouragedtoevolve.
Keyelements of TQM TheseareidentifiedbyPentecost; • Total Process • Customer as king • Rationalinformationcollectionandanalysis • Costs of poorquality • Involvement of people • Teamwork • Creativethinking
Theimportance of people • TQM requiresthecreation of a corporateidentityand a supportiveenvironment. Itinvolvessettingthehigheststandardsforquality at lowestcosts;effectivetrainingincludingteambuildingthroughouttheorganisation;integratingsystemsandtechnologywithpeople; andthemotivation,participationandcommitment of staff at alllevels of theorganisation. • ProperattentiontoHumanResource(HR)issues is an essentialrequirementforthesuccesfulimplementation of TQM.
JamessupportsQuality of Working Life(QWL) culture. • Theaim of QWL culture is tocreate a fear-freeorganisation in whichemployeeinvolvement is pursuedvigorously. Itgenerates a highdegree of recipropalcommitmentbetweentheneedsanddevelopment of theindividual, andthegoalsanddevelopments of theorganisation.
Thesuccess of TQM • Hellersays ‘Thesuccesses ,andmanyotherEuropeancases,however,areemphaticevidencethat Total QualityManagementdelivers-youcan’targuewiththeresults.’ • Kreitner et al.believethat ‘TQM principleshaveprofoundpracticalimplicationsformanagingpeopletoday.’ • Drummondsuggeststhat :’ Clearly,’total qualitymanagement’ offerssomenewideas. Whethertheseideashaveprovedsuccesful is unclear… Moreover, muchdependsuponhowsuccess is measured.Differentmeasures can suggestdifferentconclusions. Anotherdifficulty in assessingtheeffectiveness of ‘total qualitymanagementprogrammes’ is thatorganisationshaveimplementedDeming’sideasselectively.’
HammerandChampydefine BPR as : Thefundamentalrethinkingandradicalredesign of businessprocesstoachievedramaticimprovements in critical, contemporarymeasures of performance,such as cost,quality,service andspeed. • Theirapproach has twoprincipalfeatures: i)a completelyfresh start ,ii)a process-orientationapproachtoorganisationalanalysiscentredaround a horizontalreview of allactiviesinvolved in theprocess.
BPR startsfromhowonewouldliketheorganisationto be andworksbackward in an efforttoachieverealgains in organisationalperformance,anddelivery of productsorservices. • Stewartsuggeststhat BPR is a powerfultoolandrecommendedonlyforthoseorganisationsthatneed a realshakeup.
Relationshipwith TQM • Bothareconcernedwithorganisationalprocessesthatleadtocustomersatisfaction. • TQM tendstoseekcontinuousincrementalimprovementwithin a specificframework,BPR seeksmajoradvances in performancefrom a horizontal,cross-functionalanatomy of performanceperspective. Itinvolves a challengetotraditionalstructure ,relationships,boundariesorbarriers. • TQM requires a supportiveenvironmentandrelies on teamwork,participationandcommitment.BPR takes a morestrategicapproachandneedsto be drivenby top management.
According toHill and Collins; the need for radical change seems to be well understood and TQM appears to have more of a competitive necessity. The findings also found more widespread reported use and understanding of BPR than anticipated. Their survey revealed that factors such as cultural change and performance measurement are important elements of both TQM and BPR.
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